Kalmia latifolia

Kalmia latifolia

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Ericales
Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Ericoideae
Tribus: Phyllodoceae
Genus: Kalmia
Species: Kalmia latifolia

Name

Kalmia latifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 391. 1753.

Synonyms

Homotypic

* Chamaedaphne latifolia (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 388. 1891.

Heterotypic

* Kalmia latifolia f. alba (Raf.) Rehder, Rhodora 12: 2. 1910.
* Kalmia latifolia f. angustata Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 481. 1945.

* Kalmia latifolia f. fuscata (Rehder) Rehder, Rhodora 12: 2. 1910.
* Kalmia latifolia f. minor K. Koch., Dendrologie 2(1): 153. 1872.
* Kalmia latifolia f. myrtifolia (Bosse) K. Koch, Dendrologie 2(1): 153. 1872.
* Kalmia latifolia f. obtusata (Rehder) Rehder, Rhodora 12: 2. 1910.
* Kalmia latifolia f. polypetala (G. Nicholson) Beissn. et al., Handb. Landholzben. 386. 1903.
* Kalmia latifolia f. polypetala Rehder, Rhodora 12: 1. 1910, nom. illeg.
* Kalmia latifolia f. rubra Sweet ex K. Koch., Dendrologie 2(1): 152. 1872.
* Kalmia latifolia var. acuminata Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 17. 1830, nom. inval.
* Kalmia latifolia var. alba (Raf.) Bosse, Vollst. Handb. Bl.-Gärtn., ed. 2, 2: 348. 1841.
* Kalmia latifolia var. alba Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 17. 1830.
* Kalmia latifolia var. arbora Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 17. 1830, nom. inval.
* Kalmia latifolia var. coronata A. Gray, Amer. Naturalist 2: 323-324. 1868.
* Kalmia latifolia var. laevipes Fernald, Rhodora 42: 53. 1940.
* Kalmia latifolia var. maeulata Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 17. 1830.
* Kalmia latifolia var. monstruosa Mouill., Traité Arbr. Arbrisse 2: 1027. 1897.
* Kalmia latifolia var. myrtifolia Bosse, Vollst. Handb. Bl.-Gärtn., ed. 2, 2: 348. 1841.
* Kalmia latifolia var. nana Lavalée, Inum. Arbres. 139. 1877, nom. inval.
* Kalmia latifolia var. nana or var. minor Mouill., Traité Arbr. Arbrisse 2: 1027. 1897, nom. illeg.
* Kalmia latifolia var. ovatifolia Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 17. 1830, nom. inval.
* Kalmia latifolia var. pavarti André, Rev. Hort. 60: 540-541, t. opp. p. 540. 1888.
* Kalmia latifolia var. polypetala G. Nicholson, Hand-List Trees and Shrubs 2: 49. 1896.
* Kalmia latifolia var. rubra (Sweet ex K. Koch) Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. 2: 854. 1900.
* Kalmia latifolia var. salicifolia J. Forbes, Hort. Woburn. 93. 1833.
* Kalmia latifolia var. ternata Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 17. 1830.
* Kalmia lucida K. Koch, Dendrologie 2(1): 152. 1872, nom. inval.
* Kalmia myrtifolia (Bosse) André, Rev. Hort. 55: 10. 1883.
* Kalmia nitida J. Forbes, Hort. Woburn. 93. 1833.
* Kalmia latifolia var. fuscata Rehder, Müller's Deutsche Gärtn-Zeitung 18: 578. 1903.
* Kalmia latifolia var. obtusata Rehder, Müller's Deutsche Gärtn-Zeitung 18: 577. 1903.


References

* New York Metropolitan Flora Project. Brooklyn Botanical Garden. Accessed 2009 June 14 [1].


Vernacular names
English: Mountain-laurel, Spoonwood, Ivybush, Calico Bush, Sheep Laurel, Lambkill, Clamoun
Français: Laurier des Montagnes, Laurier d'Amérique, Kalmie
Svenska: Bredbladig Kalmia

Kalmia latifolia, commonly called Mountain-laurel or Spoonwood, is a species flowering plant in the blueberry family, Ericaceae, that is native to the eastern United States. Its range stretches from southern Maine south to northern Florida, and west to Indiana and Louisiana. Mountain-laurel is the state flower of Connecticut and Pennsylvania. It is the namesake of the city of Laurel, Mississippi (founded 1882).


Growth

It is an evergreen shrub growing to 3–9 m tall. The leaves are 3–12 cm long and 1–4 cm wide. Its flowers are round, ranging from light pink to white, and occurring in clusters. There are several named cultivars today that have darker shades of pink, near red and maroon pigment. It blooms in May and June. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Roots are fibrous and matted.[1]

The plant is naturally found on rocky slopes and mountainous forest areas. It thrives in acidic soil, preferring a soil pH in the 4.5 to 5.5 range. The plant often grows in large thickets, covering great areas of forest floor. In North America it can become tree sized on undeveloped mountains of the Carolinas but is a shrub farther north.[1] The species is a frequent component of oak-heath forests. [2][3]
Etymology

It is also known as Ivybush, Calico Bush, Spoonwood (because native Americans used to make their spoons out of it), Sheep Laurel, Lambkill and Clamoun.

The plant was first recorded in America in 1624, but it was named after Pehr Kalm, who sent samples to Linnaeus in the 18th century.

Cultivation and uses

The plant was originally brought to Europe as an ornamental plant during the 18th century. It is still widely grown for its attractive flowers. Numerous cultivars have been selected with varying flower color. Many of the cultivars have originated from the Connecticut Experiment Station in Hamden and from the plant breeding of Dr. Richard Jaynes. Jaynes has numerous named varieties that he has created and is considered the world's authority on Kalmia latifolia. [4][5]

A little known American use of the plant was in the making of arbors for early wooden-works clocks.[citation needed]

Mountain laurel is a food plant of last resort for gypsy moth caterpillars, utilized only during outbreaks when moth densities are extremely high.[citation needed]
handrail made with mountain laurel branches
Wood Railing Section Made with Mountain Laurel Branches

The branches of mountain laurel trees are well suited for use as a handrail or guard rail. [6] When used in a handrail, smaller diameter branches of less than 1.5 inches are preferred. Mountain laurel branches larger in diameter than 1.5 inches are used in exterior structures, pergolas, gazebos, bridge guardrails and more. Rustic mountain furniture, from chairs and tables to bed frames and bureaus, can be crafted out of this versatile wood.

Toxicity

Mountain-laurel is poisonous to several different animals due to andromedotoxin and arbutin, including horses, goats, cattle, sheep, and deer. It is not toxic to dogs, cats, or small household pets. The green parts of the plant, flowers, twigs, and pollen are all toxic, and symptoms of toxicity begin to appear about 6 hours following ingestion. Poisoning produces anorexia, repeated swallowing, profuse salivation, depression, uncoordination, vomiting, frequent defecation, watering of the eyes, irregular or difficulty breathing, weakness, cardiac distress, convulsions, coma, and eventually death. Autopsy will show gastrointestinal irritation and hemorrhage.

References

1. ^ a b Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 186–189.
2. ^ The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups (Version 2.3), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2010
3. ^ Schafale, M. P. and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: third approximation. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation.
4. ^ Shreet, Sharon (April-May 1996). "Mountain Laurel". Flower and Garden Magazine. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1082/is_n2_v40/ai_18152569/.
5. ^ ((cite book| last=Jaynes|first=Richard A.|title=Kalmia: Mountain Laurel and Related Species|publisher:Timber Press|location=Portland, OR|date=1997|isbn=0881923672}}
6. ^ Pader, James. "Wood Railing". http://awoodrailing.com.

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