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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Scilloideae
Tribus: Hyacintheae
Subtribus: Massoniinae
Genus: Lachenalia
Subgenera: L. subg. Lachenalia – L. subg. Polyxena
Species overview: L. alba – L. algoensis – L. aloides – L. ameliae – L. angelica – L. anguinea – L. arbuthnotiae – L. argillicola – L. attenuata – L. aurioliae – L. bachmannii – L. barkeriana – L. bolusii – L. bowkeri – L. bruynsii – L. buchubergensis – L. bulbifera – L. calcicola – L. callista – L. campanulata – L. canaliculata – L. capensis – L. carnosa – L. cernua – L. comptonii – L. concordiana – L. congesta – L. contaminata – L. convallarioides – L. corymbosa – L. dasybotrya – L. dehoopensis – L. doleritica – L. duncanii – L. elegans – L. ensifolia – L. fistulosa – L. flava – L. framesii – L. giessii – L. glauca – L. glaucophylla – L. haarlemensis – L. hirta – L. inconspicua – L. isopetala – L. judithiae – L. juncifolia – L. karooica – L. karoopoortensis – L. klinghardtiana – L. kliprandensis – L. krugeri – L. lactosa – L. latimerae – L. leipoldtii – L. leomontana – L. liliiflora – L. longibracteata – L. longituba – L. lutea – L. luteola – L. lutzeyeri – L. macgregoriorum – L. magentea – L. margaretae – L. marginata – L. marlothii – L. martiniae – L. martleyi – L. mathewsii – L. maximiliani – L. mediana – L. membranacea – L. minima – L. moniliformis – L. montana – L. multifolia – L. mutabilis – L. namaquensis – L. namibiensis – L. nardousbergensis – L. neilii – L. nervosa – L. nordenstamii – L. nutans – L. obscura – L. orchioides – L. orchioides – L. orthopetala – L. pallida – L. patens – L. patentissima – L. patula – L. paucifolia – L. pearsonii – L. peersii – L. perryae – L. physocaulos – L. polyphylla – L. polypodantha – L. punctata – L. purpureo-caerulea – L. pusilla – L. pygmaea – L. quadricolor – L. reflexa – L. rosea – L. salteri – L. sargeantii – L. schelpei – L. schlechteri – L. splendida – L. stayneri – L. suaveolens – L. summerfieldii – L. thomasiae – L. thunbergii – L. trichophylla – L. undulata – L. unifolia – L. valeriae – L. vanzyliae – L. variegata – L. ventricosa – L. verticillata – L. violacea – L. viridiflora – L. whitehillensis – L. wrightii – L. xerophila – L. youngii – L. zebrina – L. zeyheri
Name

Lachenalia J.Jacq. ex Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 314. 1784.

Type species: Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl. syn. L. tricolor J.Jacq. ex Murray

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Brachyscypha Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 393. 1870.
Lachenalia subg. Brachyscypha (Baker) Baker in Harv. & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 6: 423. 1897 [1].
Type species: Brachyscypha undulata Baker
Chloriza Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 21. 1866.
Lachenalia subg. Chloriza (Salisb.) Baker in Harv. & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 6: 422. 1897 [2].
Type species: non design.
Coelanthus Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 7: 46. 1829.
Lachenalia subg. Coelanthus (Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Baker in Harv. & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 6: 422. 1897 [3].
Type species: Coelanthus complicatus Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
Dipcadioides Medik., Hist. & Commentat. Acad. Elect. Sci. Theod.-Palat. 6: 432. 1790.
Type species: Dipcadioides maculata Medik.
Himas Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 21. 1866.
Type species: non design.
Manlilia Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 17. 1866.
Type species: Manlilia pygmaea (Jacq.) Salisb., nom. inval.
Monoestes Salisb., Gen. Pl. 21. 1866.
Type species: Monoestes unifolia (Jacq.) Salisb., nom. inval.
Orchiastrum Lem., Ill. Hort. 2(Misc.): 96. 1855, nom. rej.
Type species: non design.
Orchiops Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 21. 1866.
Lachenalia subg. Orchiops (Salisb.) Baker in Harv. & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 6: 422. 1897 [4].
Type species: Orchiops orchioides (L.) Salisb., nom. inval.
Periboea Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 292. 1843.
Type species: Periboea corymbosa (L.) Kunth
Platyestes Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 21. 1866.
Type species: non design.
Polyanthes Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 2: t. 380. 1793.
Type species: Polyanthes pygmaea Jacq.
Polyxena Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 294. 1843.
Type species: Polyxena pygmaea (Jacq.) Kunth
Scillopsis Lem., Ill. Hort. 2(Misc.): 96. 1855.
Type species: non design.
Sugillaria Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 18. 1866.
Type species: Sugillaria lanceifolia (Jacq.) Salisb., nom. inval.
Triallosia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 60. 1837.
Type species: Triallosia pallida (Aiton) Raf.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Africa
Southern Africa
Cape Provinces, Namibia, Free State.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Baker, J.G. (1897) Lachenalia Jacq. in Harvey, W.H. & auct. suc. (eds.) Flora Capensis 6: 421–436 [5].
Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Lachenalia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Mar 05. Reference page.
Murray, J.A. (1784) Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 314.

Vernacular names
latviešu: vijoļhiacintes

Lachenalia is a genus of bulbous perennial plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae,[2] which are usually found in Namibia and South Africa. Most of them have a dormancy period, but new roots will always grow every year.

Lachenalia is named after the Swiss botanist Werner de Lachenal (1736-1800).[3] Species are sometimes known as Cape cowslip, though they are not directly related to the true cowslip Primula veris.

Species

As of December 2012, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepted 115 species:[1]

Lachenalia alba W.F.Barker ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia algoensis Schönland
Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl.
Lachenalia ameliae W.F.Barker
Lachenalia angelica W.F.Barker
Lachenalia anguinea Sweet
Lachenalia arbuthnotiae W.F.Barker
Lachenalia attenuata W.F.Barker ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia aurioliae G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia bachmannii Baker
Lachenalia barkeriana U.Müll.-Doblies
Lachenalia bolusii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia bowkeri Baker
Lachenalia buchubergensis Dinter
Lachenalia bulbifera (Cirillo) Engl.
Lachenalia campanulata Baker
Lachenalia capensis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia carnosa Baker
Lachenalia cernua G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia comptonii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia concordiana Schltr. ex W.F.Barker
Lachenalia congesta W.F.Barker
Lachenalia contaminata Aiton
Lachenalia convallarioides Baker
Lachenalia corymbosa (L.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt
Lachenalia dasybotrya Diels
Lachenalia dehoopensis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia doleritica G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia duncanii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia elegans W.F.Barker
Lachenalia ensifolia (Thunb.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt
Lachenalia fistulosa Baker
Lachenalia flava Andrews
Lachenalia framesii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia giessii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia glaucophylla W.F.Barker
Lachenalia haarlemensis Fourc.
Lachenalia hirta (Thunb.) Thunb.
Lachenalia inconspicua G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia isopetala Jacq.

Lachenalia juncifolia Baker
Lachenalia karooica W.F.Barker ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia klinghardtiana Dinter
Lachenalia kliprandensis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia lactosa G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia latimerae W.F.Barker
Lachenalia leipoldtii G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia leomontana W.F.Barker
Lachenalia liliiflora Jacq.
Lachenalia longibracteata E.Phillips
Lachenalia longituba (A.M.van der Merwe) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt
Lachenalia lutea G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia luteola Jacq.
Lachenalia lutzeyeri G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia macgregoriorum W.F.Barker
Lachenalia margaretae W.F.Barker
Lachenalia marginata W.F.Barker
Lachenalia marlothii W.F.Barker ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia martiniae W.F.Barker
Lachenalia mathewsii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia maughanii (W.F.Barker) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt
Lachenalia maximiliani Schltr. ex W.F.Barker
Lachenalia mediana Jacq.
Lachenalia minima W.F.Barker
Lachenalia moniliformis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia montana Schltr. ex W.F.Barker
Lachenalia multifolia W.F.Barker
Lachenalia mutabilis Lodd. ex Sweet
Lachenalia namaquensis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia namibiensis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia nardousbergensis G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia neilii W.F.Barker ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia nervosa Ker Gawl.
Lachenalia nutans G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia obscura Schltr. ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia orchioides (L.) Aiton
Lachenalia orthopetala Jacq.
Lachenalia pallida Aiton
Lachenalia patula Jacq.
Lachenalia paucifolia (W.F.Barker) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt
Lachenalia pearsonii (R.Glover) W.F.Barker
Lachenalia peersii Marloth ex W.F.Barker
Lachenalia perryae G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia physocaulos W.F.Barker
Lachenalia polyphylla Baker
Lachenalia polypodantha Schltr. ex W.F.Barker
Lachenalia punctata Jacq.
Lachenalia purpureocaerulea Jacq.
Lachenalia pusilla Jacq.
Lachenalia quadricolor Jacq.
Lachenalia reflexa Thunb.
Lachenalia rosea Andrews
Lachenalia salteri W.F.Barker
Lachenalia sargeantii W.F.Barker
Lachenalia schelpei W.F.Barker
Lachenalia schlechteri Baker
Lachenalia sessiliflora Andrews
Lachenalia splendida Diels
Lachenalia stayneri W.F.Barker
Lachenalia thomasiae W.F.Barker ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia trichophylla Baker
Lachenalia undulata Masson ex Baker
Lachenalia unifolia Jacq.
Lachenalia valeriae G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia variegata W.F.Barker
Lachenalia ventricosa Schltr. ex W.F.Barker
Lachenalia verticillata W.F.Barker
Lachenalia violacea Jacq.
Lachenalia viridiflora W.F.Barker
Lachenalia whitehillensis W.F.Barker
Lachenalia wrightii Baker
Lachenalia xerophila Schltr. ex G.D.Duncan
Lachenalia youngii Baker in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.)
Lachenalia zebrina W.F.Barker
Lachenalia zeyheri Baker

Lachenalia pustulata

In addition, Lachenalia nordenstamii W.F.Barker was listed as "threatened" in the 2006 IUCN Red List,[4] but as of December 2012 the name was not accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.[1]
Cultivation

Several species are cultivated as garden plants. The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[5]

Lachenalia ‘Rupert’[6]
Lachenalia bulbifera ‘George’[7]
Lachenalia contaminata[8]
Lachenalia corymbosa[9]
Lachenalia flava[10]
Lachenalia pustulata[11]
Lachenalia quadricolor[12]
Lachenalia vanzyliae[13]
Lachenalia viridiflora[14]

References

Search for "Lachenalia", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-12-21
Stevens, P.F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Scilloideae
Genaust, Helmut (1976). Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen ISBN 3-7643-0755-2
Craven, P.; Loots, S. (2004), Lachenalia nordenstamii, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species], retrieved 22 August 2007
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 57. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia 'Rupert'". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia bulbifera 'George'". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia contaminata". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia corymbosa". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia flava". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia pustulata". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia quadricolor". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder -Lachenalia vanzyliae". Retrieved 17 March 2018.

"RHS Plantfinder - Lachenalia viridiflora". Retrieved 17 March 2018.

Bibliography

Anderson, Neil O., ed. (2007). Flower breeding and genetics: issues, challenges and opportunities for the 21st century. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 9781402065699.
Barker, Winsome F. (April 1987). "Five more new species of Lachenalia (Liliaceae — Hyacinthoideae) four from the Cape Province and one from southern South West Africa/Namibia". South African Journal of Botany. 53 (2): 166–172. doi:10.1016/S0254-6299(16)31453-3.
Duncan, G. D.; Edwards, T. J. (15 December 2006). "Three new species of Lachenalia (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae) from Western and Northern Cape, South Africa". Bothalia. 36 (2): 147–155. doi:10.4102/abc.v36i2.353.
Duncan, Graham; Helme, Nick A. (4 December 2014). "Lachenalia arenicola (Asparagaceae: Scilloideae), a new species from western South Africa" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 186 (5): 297–300. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.186.5.8.
Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Lachenalia". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.
Duncan, G. (15 December 1998). "Five new species of Lachenalia (Hyacinthaceae) from arid areas of Namibia and South Africa". Bothalia. 28 (2): 131–139. doi:10.4102/abc.v28i2.630.

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