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Lamium maculatum

Lamium maculatum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Lamioideae
Tribus: Lamieae
Genus: Lamium
Subgenus: L. subg. Lamium
Sectio: L. sect. Lamiotypus
Species: Lamium maculatum
Name

Lamium maculatum (L.) L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 2: 809. 1763.
Synonyms

Basionym
Lamium album var. maculatum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 579. 1753.
Heterotypic
Lamium affine Guss. & Ten. in M.Tenore, Fl. Neapol. Prodr. App. 4: x. 1823.
Lamium cardiaca Cogn., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 20: xxiv. 1873.
Lamium columnae Ten., Index Seminum (NAP, Neapolitano) 1827: 16. 1827.
Lamium columnae var. glabratum Ten., Syll. Pl. Fl. Neapol.: 286. 1831.
Lamium columnae var. pubescens Ten., Syll. Pl. Fl. Neapol.: 286. 1831.
Lamium cupreum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5: 357. 1855.
Lamium cupreum subsp. dilatatum (Schur) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 575. 1881.
Lamium cupreum var. dilatatum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 535. 1866.
Lamium elegantissimum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 535. 1866, nom. illeg.
Lamium foliosum Crantz, Stirp. Austr. Fasc., ed. 2, 2: 258. 1769.
Lamium grandiflorum Willd. ex Benth., Linnaea 11: 334. 1837), nom. inval.
Lamium grenieri Mutel, Fl. Franç. Herbor. 3: 25. 1836.
Lamium gundelsheimeri K.Koch, Linnaea 17: 297. 1844.
Lamium hirsutum Lam., Encycl. 3(2): 410. 1792.
Lamium laevigatum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 808. 1763.
Lamium laevigatum var. glabratum Ten., Syll. Pl. Fl. Neapol.: 286. 1831.
Lamium laevigatum var. minor Ten., Syll. Pl. Fl. Neapol.: 286. 1831.
Lamium laevigatum var. pubescens Ten., Syll. Pl. Fl. Neapol.: 286. 1831.
Lamium maculatum f. albiflorum F.Gérard, Rev. Bot. Bull. Mens. 8: 185. 1890.
Lamium maculatum f. alpinum (Heuff.) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 273. 1929.
Lamium maculatum f. brevidens Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(2): 1019. 1893.
Lamium maculatum f. dimorphum Merino, Brotéria, Sér. Bot. 12: 102, lám. 1. 1914.
Lamium maculatum f. echinatum (Griseb.) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2): 273. 1929.
Lamium maculatum f. fasciatum Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4: 47. 1829.
Lamium maculatum f. glabratum (Hoffmanns. & Link) Cout., Fl. Portugal, ed. 2: 619. 1939.
Lamium maculatum f. lacteum (Wallr.) Kuntze, Taschen-Fl. Leipzig: 109. 1867.
Lamium maculatum f. longearistatum (Nejceff) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2): 273. 1929.
Lamium maculatum f. macrophyllum (Gaudin) Soó, Magyar Fl. Veg. 3: 91. 1968.
Lamium maculatum f. pallidiflorum (Beck) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2): 273. 1929.
Lamium maculatum f. rhombifolium (Beck) Soó, Magyar Fl. Veg. 3: 91. 1968.
Lamium maculatum f. roseum Fiori in A.Fiori & al., Fl. Italia 4: 173. 1907.
Lamium maculatum f. subalpinum (Beck) Soó, Magyar Fl. Veg. 3: 91. 1968.
Lamium maculatum f. tenoreanum (Bég.) Fiori, Nuov. Fl. Italia 2: 424. 1926.
Lamium maculatum f. trilobum J.T.Jansen, Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1930: 223. 1930.
Lamium maculatum lusus crenatum (Peterm.) Soó, Magyar Fl. Veg. 3: 91. 1968.
Lamium maculatum lusus lacteum (Wallr.) Soó, Magyar Fl. Veg. 3: 91. 1968.
Lamium maculatum lusus pallidiflorum (Beck) Soó, Magyar Fl. Veg. 3: 91. 1968.
Lamium maculatum proles hirsutum (Lam.) Rouy, Fl. Fr., 11: 298. 1909.
Lamium maculatum proles rubrum Rouy, Fl. Fr., 11: 298. 1909.
Lamium maculatum proles rugosum (Aiton) Rouy, Fl. Fr., 11: 298. 1909.
Lamium maculatum subsp. nemorale (Rchb.) Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg., ed. 3: 959. 1948.
Lamium maculatum subsp. strictopurpureum A.P.Khokhr., Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 97(6): 99. 1992 publ. 1993.
Lamium maculatum subvar. parviflorum Merino, Brotéria, Sér. Bot. 12: 101. 1914.
Lamium maculatum var. alpinum Heuff., Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8(Abh.): 179. 1858.
Lamium maculatum var. bourgaei Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar.: 311. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. crenatum Peterm., Fl. Lips.: 440. 1838.
Lamium maculatum var. cupreum (Schott) Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar.: 309. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. echinatum Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 134. 1844.
Lamium maculatum var. elatius Wimm. & Grab., Fl. Siles. 2(1): 194. 1829.
Lamium maculatum var. glabratum Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 109. 1809.
Lamium maculatum var. grenieri (Mutel) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2: 250. 1889.
Lamium maculatum var. hirsutum (Lam.) Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4: 47. 1829.
Lamium maculatum var. humilius Wimm. & Grab., Fl. Siles. 2(1): 194. 1829.
Lamium maculatum var. inflatum Heuff. ex Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 134. 1844.
Lamium maculatum var. kansuense C.Y.Wu & S.J.Hsuan, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 157. 1965.
Lamium maculatum var. lacteum Wallr., Sched. Crit.: 301. 1822.
Lamium maculatum var. laevigatum (L.) Mutel, Fl. Franç. Herbor. 3: 24. 1836.
Lamium maculatum var. longearistatum Nejceff, Věstn. Král. České Společn. Nauk. Tř. Mat.-Přír. 8: 8. 1933.
Lamium maculatum var. longifolium Rouy, Naturaliste 4(7): 53. 1882.
Lamium maculatum var. macrophyllum Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4: 47. 1829.
Lamium maculatum var. madrodonton Peterm., Fl. Lips.: 439. 1838.
Lamium maculatum var. nemorale Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 321. 1830.
Lamium maculatum var. niveum (Schrad.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 574. 1881.
Lamium maculatum var. pallidiflorum Beck, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 143. 1887.
Lamium maculatum var. parvifolium Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4: 47. 1829.
Lamium maculatum var. rhombifolium Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(2): 1019. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. rubrum (Jenk.) Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar.: 308. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. rugosum (Aiton) Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar.: 310. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. subalpinum Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(2): 1019. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. tenoreanum Bég. in A.Fiori & al., Fl. Italia 3: 37. 1903.
Lamium maculatum var. truncatum Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(2): 1019. 1893.
Lamium maculatum var. villosifolium R.R.Mill, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 38: 36. 1980.
Lamium melissifolium Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 5. 1768.
Lamium mutabile Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 45. 1827.
Lamium niveum Schrad., Index Seminum (GOET, Gottingensis) 1840: 4. 1840.
Lamium pallidiflorum Beck, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 144. 1887.
Lamium rubrum Jenk., Gen. Sp. Descr. Brit. Pl.: 128. 1775.
Lamium rubrum Wallr., Sched. Crit. : 300. 1822 nom. illeg. non Jenkinson (1775).
Lamium rubrum var. lacteum Wallr., Sched. Crit.: 301. 1822.
Lamium rugosum Sol., Hortus Kew. (W. Aiton) 2: 296. 1789.
Lamium stoloniferum Lapeyr., Hist. Pl. Pyrénées: 333. 1813.
Lamium tillii Ten., Syll. Pl. Fl. Neapol., App. 4: 27. 1835.
Lamium truncatum Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 12: 86. 1853.
Lamium villosifolium (R.R.Mill) A.P.Khokhr., Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 100(6): 83. 1995.
Lamium vulgatum var. rubrum (Jenk.) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 514. 1834.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1763. Species Plantarum, ed. 2, Tomus II: 809. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Lamium maculatum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2017. Lamium maculatum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2017 02 05. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: لاميون أبقع
беларуская: яснотка плямістая
català: lami incís, lami maculat
čeština: hluchavka skvrnitá
Cymraeg: marddanhadlen fraith
Deutsch: Gefleckte Taubnessel
dolnoserbski: flakata tupa kopśiwa
English: spotted dead-nettle, spotted henbit, purple dragon
español: ortiga muerta, chordiga muerta, chupamieles, gallicos, gallos, lamio, lamio maculado, mamatetas, ordiga, ortiga blanca, ortiga fétida, órtiga fétida, ortiga manchada, ortiga muerta de hoja larga, ortiga muerta manchada, ortiga muerta matizada de blanco, pata de gallina, zapatitos de la virgen
suomi: hopeatäpläpeippi
français: lamier maculé, lamier tacheté
Gaelg: ard-firryn breck, ard-firrin breck
hornjoserbsce: płótna cycawka
magyar: foltos árvacsalán
italiano: falsa ortica macchiata
日本語: フイリオドリコソウ, 斑入り踊り子草
lietuvių: dėmėtoji notrelė
latviešu: plankumainā panātre
эрзянь: а пидиця мазы пиципалакс
Nederlands: gevlekte dovenetel, gestreepte dovenetel
polski: jasnota plamista
português: chuchas, chupa-pitos, coelhos, lâmio-maculado
русский: яснотка крапчатая
slovenčina: hluchavka škvrnitá
slovenščina: lisasta mrtva kopriva
svenska: Rosenplister
Türkçe: lekeli ballıbaba
українська: глуха кропива плямиста
中文: 紫花野芝麻

Lamium maculatum (also known as spotted dead-nettle,[1] spotted henbit[2] and purple dragon) is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native throughout Europe and temperate Asia (Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, western China).

Description

Lamium maculatum is a prostrate, spreading herbaceous perennial.[3] This species is very variable in terms of leaf size and shape, hairiness and flower colours. It reaches on average 20–80 centimetres (7.9–31.5 in) in height. It has erect, hollow and pubescent stems, branched at the base only. The soft hairy leaf blades are about 2–10 centimetres (0.79–3.94 in) long. They are sometimes spotted (hence the Latin name maculatum), toothed with long petioles, about 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.57 in) long. Their shape varies from ovate-triangular to heart-shaped. The inflorescence bears about two to eight hermaphrodite flowers about 20–30 millimetres (0.79–1.18 in) long. The flowers of the plant are formed in the leaf axils of the upper leaf pairs. The upper lips of the flowers are helmet-shaped, usually pink or purplish, while the bilobate lower ones are whitish with purple dots. The stamens are located in the upper lip and have orange pollen. The flowering period extends from April through November.

It tends to grow higher in spring while during the colder weather it is much flatter to the ground. If subjected to light frost, L. maculatum will recover in spring as it enters its growth cycle.

Form

Flowers

Leaves

Habitat

It grows in a variety of habitats from open grassland to woodland, generally on moist, fertile soils at an altitude of 0–1,200 metres (0–3,937 ft) above sea level.
Cultivation

Lamium maculatum is valued as groundcover in moist, shady areas. It will rapidly colonise an area, and may become invasive given suitable growing conditions. Numerous cultivars have been developed, mainly for their coloured and varigated leaves, including:-[3]

'Album' (white form)
'Anne Greenaway'(leaves marbled with light and dark green, chartreuse and silver, flowers mauve-pink).
'Aureum' (yellow-leaved)
'Beacon Silver' (silver leaves)
'Cannon's Gold' (gold leaves)
'Chequers' (vigorous, silver-striped leaves)
'Purple Dragon' has unusually purple snapdragon-type flowers several times a year, over bright silver foliage with a green edge: it grows 4–8 in (102–203 mm) tall in shaded or partially shaded areas.
'Red Nancy' (silver leaves with green margins)
'Roseum' (leaves with a central silver stripe)
'Sterling Silver' (silver leaves)
'White Nancy'

'Beacon Silver'

'Ghost'

'Pink Nancy'

'Roseum'

'Shell Pink'

'White Nancy'

Synonyms

Lamium affine Guss. & Ten. in M.Tenore
Lamium album var. maculatum L.
Lamium cardiaca Cogn.
Lamium columnae Ten.
Lamium cupreum Schott
Lamium cupreum subsp. dilatatum (Schur) Nyman
Lamium dilatatum Schur
Lamium elegantissimum Schur
Lamium foliosum Crantz
Lamium grandiflorum Willd. ex Benth.
Lamium grenieri Mutel
Lamium gundelsheimeri K.Koch
Lamium hirsutum Lam.

Lamium laevigatum L.
Lamium melissifolium Mill.
Lamium mutabile Dumort.
Lamium niveum Schrad.
Lamium pallidiflorum Beck
Lamium rubrum Jenk.
Lamium rugosum Sol. in W.Aiton
Lamium stoloniferum Lapeyr.
Lamium tillii Ten.
Lamium truncatum Boiss.
Lamium villosifolium (R.R.Mill) A.P.Khokhr.
Lamium vulgatum var. rubrum Benth.

References

BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Lamium maculatum". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 23 January 2016.

RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.

Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982 Vol. II, pg. 456
Mayhew H. - The criminal prisons of London, and scenes of prison life - 1862, p. 224

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