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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Epidendroideae
Tribus: Malaxideae
Genus: Liparis
Overview of species (440)
Top · a · b · c · d · e · f · g · h · i · j · k · l · m · n · o · p · q · r · s · t · u · v · w · x · y · z
a

L. abyssinica – L. acaulis – L. acuminata – L. acutissima – L. affinis – L. alata – L. altigena – L. amabilis – L. ambohimangana – L. amboinensis – L. amesiana – L. anatina – L. anceps – L. andringitrana – L. anemophila – L. angustilabris – L. angustioblonga – L. anopheles – L. anthericoides – L. aphylla – L. apiculata – L. aptenodytes – L. arachnites – L. araneola – L. arnoglossophylla – L. arrigens – L. ascendens – L. assamica – L. atropurpurea – L. atrosanguinea – L. aurantiorbiculata – L. auriculata – L. auriculifera – L. aurita – L. averyanoviana
b

L. balansae – L. barbata – L. bathiei – L. bautingensis – L. beccarii – L. beddomei – L. bernieri – L. bibullata – L. bicolor – L. bicuspidata – L. biglobulifera – L. biloba – L. bilobulata – L. bistriata – L. bleyi – L. bontocensis – L. bootanensis – L. bowkeri – L. brachyglottis – L. brachystalix – L. brachystele – L. bracteata – L. brassii – L. brevicaulis – L. brookesii – L. brunnea – L. brunneolobata – L. brunnescens – L. bulbophylloides
c

L. caillei – L. calcarea – L. caloglossa – L. cameronica – L. campylostalix – L. capensis – L. cardiophylla – L. caricifolia – L. carinatisepala – L. carnicolor – L. cathcartii – L. caudata – L. caulescens – L. cespitosa – L. chalandei – L. chapaensis – L. cheniana – L. chimanimaniensis – L. chlorantha – L. chungthangensis – L. cinnabarina – L. cladophylax – L. clareae – L. clavigera – L. claytoniana – L. cleistogama – L. clypeolum – L. coelogynoides – L. cogniauxiana – L. collinsii – L. condylobulbon – L. conopea – L. cordifolia – L. cordiformis – L. crassibasis – L. crenulata – L. crispifolia – L. cyclostele – L. cymbidiifolia
d

L. dalessandroi – L. dalzellii – L. damingshanensis – L. decurrens – L. deflexa – L. deistelii – L. delicatula – L. dendrochiloides – L. densa – L. derchiensis – L. disepala – L. distans – L. dolichobulbon – L. dolichostachys – L. dongchenii – L. downii – L. draculoides – L. dryadum – L. dumaguetensis – L. dunnii – L. duthiei
e

L. ecallosa – L. elegans – L. elegantula – L. elliptica – L. elmeri – L. elongata – L. emarginata – L. epiphytica – L. esquirolii – L. exaltata – L. exilis
f

L. fantastica – L. fargesii – L. ferruginea – L. ficicola – L. filiformis – L. finetiana – L. firma – L. fissilabris – L. fissipetala – L. flabellata – L. flammula – L. flavescens – L. fleckeri – L. foetulenta – L. formosana – L. forrestii – L. funingensis – L. furcata
g

L. gamblei – L. gautierensis – L. geelvinkensis – L. genychila – L. geophila – L. gibbsiae – L. gigantea – L. gjellerupii – L. glaucescens – L. glossula – L. glumacea – L. gongshanensis – L. goodyeroides – L. govidjoae – L. gracilenta – L. gracilipes – L. graciliscapa – L. graminifolia – L. grandiflora – L. greenwoodiana – L. grossa – L. guangxiensis – L. guingangae
h

L. habenarina – L. hagerupii – L. halconensis – L. hallei – L. harketii – L. hawaiensis – L. heliophila – L. hemipilioides – L. henrici – L. henryi – L. hirtzii – L. hirundo – L. honbaensis – L. hostifolia
i

L. imerinensis – L. imperatifolia – L. inamoena – L. inaperta – L. insectifera – L. inundata
j

L. jamaicensis – L. janowskii – L. javanica – L. jovispluvii – L. jumelleana
k

L. kamborangensis – L. kamerunensis – L. kemulensis – L. kerintjiensis – L. kinabaluensis – L. kiriromensis – L. koreojaponica – L. krameri – L. kumokiri – L. kwangtungensis
l

L. lacerata – L. lacus – L. lamproglossa – L. langtangensis – L. latialata – L. latibasis – L. laticuneata – L. latifolia – L. latilabris – L. laurisilvatica – L. lauterbachii – L. laxa – L. layardii – L. leptopus – L. leratii – L. letouzeyana – L. leucophaea – L. liangzuensis – L. liliifolia – L. lindeniana – L. listeroides – L. loeselii – L. loliacea – L. longibracteata – L. longicaulis – L. longipetala – L. longiracemosa – L. longispica – L. longissima – L. lutea – L. luteola – L. lycopodioides – L. lydiae
m

L. madrensis – L. mae – L. maingayi – L. major – L. makinoana – L. mamillata – L. mannii – L. mantidopsis – L. maotiensis – L. meihuashanensis – L. mentaweiensis – L. merapiensis – L. merrillii – L. microblepharon – L. microcharis – L. minahassae – L. miniata – L. misoolensis – L. molendinacea – L. monoceros – L. montana – L. mulindana – L. murkelensis –
n

L. nakaharae – L. nana – L. nanlingensis – L. napoensis – L. nebuligena – L. nectarina – L. negrosiana – L. nemoralis – L. nephrocardia – L. nervosa – L. neuroglossa – L. ngoclinhensis – L. nigra – L. nigrescens – L. nonatra – L. nugentiae – L. nutans – L. nyikana
o

L. ochracea – L. ochrantha – L. odorata – L. olivacea – L. oppositifolia – L. orbiculata – L. ornithorrhynchos – L. ovalis
p

L. palawanensis – L. palawensis – L. pallida – L. pandaneti – L. panduriformis – L. parva – L. parviflora – L. parvula – L. pauliana – L. pedicellaris – L. penduliflora – L. perpusilla – L. perrieri – L. petelotii – L. petiolata – L. petraea – L. petricola – L. phalacrocorax – L. philippinensis – L. phyllocardia – L. pilifera – L. pingtaoi – L. pingxiangensis – L. plantaginea – L. platychila – L. platyglossa – L. platyphylla – L. platyrachis – L. popaensis – L. prianganensis – L. propinqua – L. pseudodisticha – L. pterosepala – L. puberula – L. pullei – L. pulverulenta – L. pumila – L. puncticulata – L. punctilabris – L. purpureoviridis – L. purpureovittata – L. pygmaea
r

L. ramosa – L. reckoniana – L. rectangularis – L. reflexa – L. refracta – L. regnieri – L. remota – L. resupinata – L. retusa – L. rheedei – L. rhodochila – L. rhombea – L. rivalis – L. rivularis – L. robustior – L. rockii – L. rosseelii – L. rostrata – L. rubescens – L. rubrotincta – L. rufina – L. rungweensis – L. rupestris – L. rusbyi
s

L. salassia – L. sambiranoensis – L. sanamalabarica – L. sasakii – L. saundersiana – L. scaposa – L. schistochila – L. schneideri – L. schunkei – L. seidenfadeniana – L. serpens – L. serratiloba – L. serrulata – L. sessilis – L. siamensis – L. simmondsii – L. somae – L. sootenzanensis – L. sparsiflora – L. spectabilis – L. spiralipetala – L. stenoglossa – L. stenophylla – L. stolzii – L. stricklandiana – L. suborbicularis – L. sula – L. superposita – L. suzumushi – L. swenssonii – L. sympodialis
t

L. tenella – L. tenuis – L. tigerhillensis – L. togensis – L. torricellensis – L. torta – L. tortilis – L. toxopei – L. trachyglossa – L. tradescantiifolia – L. tricallosa – L. trichechus – L. trichoglottis – L. tridens – L. trifoliata – L. tripartita – L. triticea – L. trullifera – L. trulliformis – L. truncata – L. truncatula – L. truncicola – L. tschangii – L. tsii – L. tunensis
u

L. udaii
v

L. vargasii – L. vasquezii – L. verticillata – L. vestita – L. vexillifera – L. viridiflora – L. viridipurpurea – L. vittata – L. vivipara – L. volcanica – L. vulturiceps
w

L. wageneri – L. walakkadensis – L. walkerae – L. warpurii – L. wenshanensis – L. werneri – L. wightiana
x

L. xanthina
y

L. yamadae – L. yanachagae – L. yongnoana
z

L. zaratananae – L. zosterops
Nothospecies: (1)

L. jonesii
Name

Liparis Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 30 (1817), nom. cons.

Type species: Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. (1817)

Synonymy

Heterotypic
Leptorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809)
Pseudorchis Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 213 (1821), nom. illeg.
Empusa (Orchidaceae) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 10: t. 825 (1824)
Anistylis Raf., Neogenyton: 4 (1825)
Sturmia Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 4: 39 (1826), nom. illeg.
Paliris Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 134 (1827)
Empusaria Rchb., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 69 (1828)
Platystylis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 18 (1830), nom. illeg.
Diteilis Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833)
Mesoptera Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833), nom. rej.
Dituilis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 49 (1838)
Iebine Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 39 (1838)
Alipsa Hoffmanns., Linnaea 16(Litt.): 228 (1842)
Apation Blume ex Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 279 (1886), nom. inval.
Cestichis Thouars ex Pfitzer, Entwurf. Anordn. Orch.: 56 (1887)
Platystyliparis Marg., Richardiana 7: 35 (2006)
Ypsilorchis Z.J.Liu, S.C.Chen & L.J.Chen, J. Syst. Evol. 46: 623 (2008)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden.
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
France.
Southeastern Europe
Bulgaria,† Italy, Romania, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Africa
West Tropical Africa
Benin, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone, Togo.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Burundi, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Rwanda, Zaïre.
Northeast Tropical Africa
Ethiopia.
East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.
South Tropical Africa
Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Southern Africa
Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland, Northern Provinces.
Western Indian Ocean
Comoros, Mauritius, Madagascar, Réunion, Seychelles.
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, West Siberia.
Russian Far East
Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin.
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan.
China
China South-Central, Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, China Southeast, Tibet.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Kazan-retto, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto, Taiwan.
Asia-Tropical
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya.
Indo-China
Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.
Malesia
Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Peninsular Malaysia, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
Papuasia
Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands.
Australasia
Australia
New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland.
Pacific
Southwestern Pacific
Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Santa Cruz Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis-Futuna Islands.
South-Central Pacific
Cook Islands, Marquesas, Society Islands, Tubuai Islands.
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands, Marianas.
North-Central Pacific
Hawaii,
Northern America
Subarctic America
Northwest Territories.
Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.
Eastern Canada
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isle, Québec.
Northwestern U.S.A.
Montana, Washington.
North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Islands, Vermont, West Virginia.
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.
Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
Caribbean
Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Islands.
Northern South America
French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela.
Western South America
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Galápagos, Peru.
Brazil
Brazil West-Central, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil North, Brazil South.
Southern South America
Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Paraguay.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References
Primary references

Richard, L.C.M. 1817. De Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes 21, 30, 38. [Preprint of Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 4 :28-82;43,60. (1818)]
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2006. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 4 Epidendroideae (Part one); page 465 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850712-7. Reference page.

Links

'eFloras 2009. Liparis in Flora of China vol. 25 Orchidaceae --> pdf Liparis
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2021. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Liparis (Orchidaceae). Accessed: 2021 Jul 14.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Liparis (Orchidaceae) in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 14. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Liparis (Orchidaceae) in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 14. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Liparis (Orchidaceae). World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Liparis (Orchidaceae). Published online. Accessed: 14 Jul 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Liparis (Orchidaceae). Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul 14.

Vernacular names

беларуская: Ласняк
English: Widelip orchid
eesti: Hiilakas
suomi: Kiiltovalkut
hornjoserbsce: Błyšćawka
日本語: クロクモキリ属
перем коми: Липарис
коми: Липарис
lietuvių: Purvuolis
мокшень: Липарис
олык марий: Липарис
кырык мары: Липарис
polski: Lipiennik
русский: Липарис
svenska: Gulyxnesläktet
удмурт: Липарис
中文: 羊耳蒜

Liparis, commonly known as widelip orchids,[3] sphinx orchids[4] or 羊耳蒜属 (yang er suan shu)[5] is a cosmopolitan genus of more than 350 species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic herbs with a wide range of forms. The flowers are usually resupinate and small to medium sized, yellow, yellow-green or purplish with spreading sepals and petals. The labellum is usually larger than the sepals and petals and is lobed, sometimes with a toothed or wavy margin and one or two calli at its base.

Description

Orchids in the genus Liparis are terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic herbs, usually with one to a few leaves which may be linear to egg-shaped, thin or leathery and sometimes pleated. The flowers are small to medium sized, resupinate and arranged on a flowering stem with small bracts. The flowers are usually dull yellow, yellow-green or purplish and often have an unpleasant odour. The sepals and petals turn downwards and the dorsal sepal is free but the lateral sepals are sometimes fused for at least part of their length. The petals are free from each other and often different in size and shape from the sepals. The labellum is usually larger than both the sepals and petals, often lobed with a toothed or wavy edge and one or two calli at its base. There are two pairs of waxy, oval pollinia, each with a viscidium.[4][5][6]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Liparis was first formally described in 1817 by Louis Claude Richard and the description was published in Die Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes.[7][8] The name Liparis is from the Ancient Greek word liparos meaning "oily", "greasy", "sleek" or "shiny",[9] referring to the smooth leaves.[10]
Distribution

Species of Liparis occur on every continent except Antarctica. They are found in tropical Asia, subtropical and tropical parts of the Americas, Africa, New Guinea and Australia. There are sixty three species in China, twenty of which are endemic to that country, two in North America and one in Europe.[5][11]
Selected species

Liparis angustilabris (F.Muell.) Blaxell – Queensland
Liparis bautingensis Tang & F.T.Wang – China
Liparis bracteata T.E.Hunt – Queensland
Liparis coelogynoides (F.Muell.) Benth. – N.S.W., Qld.
Liparis condylobulbon Rchb.f. – Taiwan, Indochina to south-west Pacific
Liparis crenulata (Blume) Lindl. –, Indonesia
Liparis elegans Lindl. –, Indonesia, New Guinea
Liparis fissipetala Finet – China
Liparis fleckeri Nicholls – Qld.
Liparis goodyeroides Schltr. – Africa
Liparis habenarina (F.Muell.) F.Muell. ex Benth. – Australia
Liparis hawaiensis (Blume) Lindl. – Hawaiian Islands
Liparis hostifolia (Koidz.) Koidz. ex Nakai – Japan
Liparis latifolia Lindl. – China, Southeast Asia, the Philippines, New Guinea
Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich. ex Lindl. – North America
Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. – Europe, Asia, North America
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. – Asia, Africa, America
Liparis nugentiae F.M.Bailey – Qld.
Liparis petricola (D.L.Jones & B.Gray) Bostock – Qld.
Liparis pingxiangensis L.Li & H.F.Yan – China
Liparis reflexa (R.Br.) Lindl. – N.S.W.
Liparis sanamalabarica P.M.Salim – India
Liparis simmondsii F.M.Bailey – Qld.
Liparis swenssonii F.M.Bailey – N.S.W., Qld.

References

"Liparis". American Orchid Society. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
"Liparis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
"Liparis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
Brown, Andrew; Dixon, Kingsley; French, Christopher; Brockman, Garry (2013). Field guide to the orchids of Western Australia : the definitive guide to the native orchids of Western Australia. Simon Nevill Publications. p. 498. ISBN 9780980348149.
Chen, Xinqi; Ormerod, Paul; Wood, Jeffrey J. "Liparis". Flora of China. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
"Flora Zambesiaca - Liparis". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
"Liparis". APNI. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
Richard, Louis Claude (1817). Die Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes. Paris. pp. 21, 30, 38. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 487.
"Liparis loeselii". Wisconsin State Herbarium. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
"Liparis". Flora of Mozambique. Retrieved 24 October 2018.

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