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Lysichiton americanus , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Orontioideae
Genus: Lysichiton
Species: Lysichiton americanus
Name

Lysichiton americanus Hulten & H.St.John, Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. 25:455. 1931 (as Lysichitum americanum).
Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Alaska to W. U.S.A.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Hultén, O.E.G. & St. John, H., 1931. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift Utgifven af Svenska Botaniska Foreningen. Stockholm 25:455-457. 1931 "Lysichitum americanum", orth. err.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Lysichiton americanus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Lysichiton americanus. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 14 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Lysichiton americanus in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 14.
Tropicos.org 2018. Lysichiton americanus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 14.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Lysichiton americanus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
Cymraeg: Pidyn-y-gog Americanaidd
dansk: Gul Kæmpekalla
Deutsch: Gelbe Scheincalla
English: American Skunk-cabbage
español: Col de mofeta occidental
eesti: Ameerika kevadvõhk
فارسی: چراغ مرداب غربی
suomi: Keltamajavankaali
français: Lysichiton américain
magyar: Sárga lápbuzogány
lietuvių: Amerikinis lizichitonas
latviešu: Amerikas lizihitons
Nederlands: Moeraslantaarn
norsk: Skunkkala
polski: Tulejnik amerykański
русский: Лизихитон американский
svenska: Gul Skunkkalla
中文: 黃花水芭蕉


Lysichiton americanus, also called western skunk cabbage (US), yellow skunk cabbage (UK),[1] American skunk-cabbage (Britain and Ireland)[2] or swamp lantern,[3] is a plant found in swamps and wet woods, along streams and in other wet areas of the Pacific Northwest, where it is one of the few native species in the arum family. The plant is called skunk cabbage because of the distinctive "skunky" odor that it emits when it blooms. This odor will permeate the area where the plant grows, and can be detected even in old, dried specimens. The distinctive odor attracts its pollinators, scavenging flies and beetles. Although similarly named and with a similar smell, the plant is easy to distinguish from the eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), another species in the arum family found in eastern North America.
Contents

1 Description
2 Distribution
3 Cultivation
4 Other uses
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

Description
Flower detail

The plant grows from rhizomes that measure 30 cm or longer, and 2.5 to 5 cm in diameter. The short-stalked leaves are the largest of any native plant in the region, 30–150 cm long and 10–70 cm wide when mature. Its flowers are produced in a spadix contained within a 7–12 cm, large, bright yellow or yellowish green spathe atop a 30–50 cm stalk. The flowers are numerous and densely packed. It is among the first flowers to bloom in late winter or early spring.[4][5][6] Unlike the genus Symplocarpus (which includes S. foetidus, the eastern skunk cabbage), the flowers of Lysichiton species do not produce heat,[7] although this is widely and incorrectly said to be the case.[8]
Distribution

Lysichiton americanus is found from Kodiak Island and Cook Inlet, Alaska south through British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and Northern California as far south as Santa Cruz County. Isolated populations are also found in northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.[9][10]

The plant was introduced into cultivation in the United Kingdom in 1901 and has escaped to become naturalized in marshy areas in Britain and Ireland, for example in Hampshire and Surrey, including Wisley Gardens, and in the north and west of the UK.[11] In 2016, it was classified by the European Union as an invasive non-native plant species.[12] This implies that this species cannot be imported, cultivated, transported, commercialized, planted, or intentionally released into the environment in the whole of the European Union.[13]
Cultivation

It was used as an ornamental garden plant in Britain and Ireland, where it grows well in marshy conditions. As of 2018, the Royal Horticultural Society recommends that it should not be cultivated.[14]

Hybrids with Lysichiton camtschatcense, called Lysichiton × hortensis, are also cultivated. These have larger spathes than either of the parents.[11]
Other uses

While some consider the plant to be a weed, its roots are food for bears,[15] who eat it after hibernating as a laxative or cathartic. Deer may browse the leaves.[15]

The plant was used by indigenous people as medicine for burns and injuries, and for food in times of famine, when the leaves were heated and eaten.[15] The leaves have a somewhat spicy or peppery taste. The plant contains calcium oxalate crystals, which result in a prickling sensation on the tongue and throat[15] and can result in intestinal irritation and even death if consumed in large quantities. Although the plant was not typically part of the diet under normal conditions, its large, waxy leaves were important to food preparation and storage. They were commonly used to line berry baskets and to wrap around whole salmon and other foods when baked under a fire. It is also used to cure sores and swelling.
Foliage of L. americanus
See also

Lysichiton camtschatcensis (Asian skunk cabbage): a related plant from north-east Asia, but not known for producing a foul smell
Symplocarpus foetidus (eastern skunk cabbage): although not in the same genus, it is often confused with western skunk cabbage
Calla palustris (bog arum): a similar plant grown as an ornamental herbaceous perennial

References

RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
E-FLORA BC: Electronic Atlas Of The Flora Of British Columbia, Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Klinkenberg, Brian, ed. (2014). "Lysichiton americanus". E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
Giblin, David, ed. (2015). "Lysichiton americanus". biology.burke.washington.edu. Burke Museum, University of Washington. WTU Herbarium Image Collection. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
"Lysichiton americanus". Jepson eFlora: Taxon page. Jepson Herbarium; University of California, Berkeley. 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
Halevy, Abraham H. (July 23, 2019). Handbook of Flowering Volume VI. CRC Press. p. 421. ISBN 9781351081030.
See as one example "Lysichiton americanus". Learn 2 Grow. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2012-12-04.
Sullivan, Steven. K. (2015). "Lysichiton americanus". Wildflower Search. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
"Lysichiton americanus". PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture; Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
Armitage, James D. & Phillips, Barry W. (2011), "A hybrid swamp lantern", The Plantsman, New Series, 10 (3): 155–157
"List of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern". European Commission. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
"REGULATION (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European parliament and of the council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species".
"RHS Plant Selector - Lysichiton americanus". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Field Guide to Over 400 Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and High Desert. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 101. ISBN 1-4930-3633-5. OCLC 1073035766.

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