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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Myrtales

Familia: Lythraceae
Genus: Lythrum
Species: L. acutangulum – L. alatum – L. album – L. americanum – L. anatolicum – L. baeticum – L. borysthenicum – L. breviflorum – L. bryantii – L. californicum – L. curtissii – L. flagellare – L. flexuosum – L. gracile – L. hyssopifolia – L. intermedium – L. junceum – L. komarovii – L. lineare – L. linearifolium – L. linifolium – L. lydiae – L. maritimum – L. nanum – L. ovalifolium – L. paradoxum – L. portula – L. rotundifolium – L. salicaria – L. schelkovnikovii – L. silenoides – L. theodori – L. thesioide – L. thymifolia – L. tribracteatum – L. virgatum – L. virgultosum – L. volgense – L. vulneraria – L. wilsonii

- L. hyssopifolia - L. portula -

Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Lythrum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov 21. Reference page.

Name

Lythrum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 446. 1753.

Type species: L. salicaria L.

Synonyms

Chabraea Bubani, Fl. Pyrenaea 2: 640. 1899, nom. illeg. non Adans. (1763).
Editeles Raf., Sylva Tellur. 103. 1838.
Lithrum Huds., Fl. Angl. 179, 180. 1762.
Lythastrum Hill, Veg. Syst. 11. 34. 1767.
Lythron St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon v7. 113, 129. 1880.
Lytrum Vill., Fl. Dauph. 3. 818. 1789.
Middendorfia Trautv., Mem. Sav. Etr. Petersb. 4. (1842) 489. 1842.
Peplis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 332. 1753.
Salica Hill, Hortus Kew 172/24. 1768.
Salicaria Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 1754.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 446.
Hassler, M. 2018. Lythrum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Oct. 15. Reference page.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Lythrum in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2009 Oct 01.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Lythrum. Published online. Accessed: Oct 15 2018.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Ağlarot
беларуская: Чальчак
български: Блатия
čeština: kyprej
dansk: Kattehale
Deutsch: Blutweideriche
English: Loosestrife
Esperanto: Litrumo
eesti: Kukesaba
فارسی: خون‌فام
suomi: Rantakukat
עברית: שנית
hornjoserbsce: Krawina
magyar: Füzény
հայերեն: Արենախոտ
ქართული: ცოცხმაგარა
қазақша: Тергүл
한국어: 부처꽃
lietuvių: Raudoklė
Nederlands: Kattenstaart
polski: Krwawnica
русский: Дербенник, Подбережник
slovenčina: vrbica
svenska: Fackelblomstersläktet
Tiếng Việt: Didiplis
中文: 千屈菜属

Lythrum is a genus of 38 species of flowering plants native to the temperate world. Commonly known as loosestrife (a name they share with Lysimachia, which are not closely related), they are among 32 genera of the family Lythraceae.[3]

Description

They are herbaceous annuals or perennials. Typically they have square stems, narrow stalkless leaves, and spikes of star-shaped flowers in shades of purple, pink and white. They are especially associated with boggy areas, river banks and ponds, though in cultivation they often tolerate drier conditions. The species L. salicaria (purple loosestrife) and L. virgatum are found in cultivation.[3]
Selected species

Species include:[1][4][5][6]

Lythrum alatum Pursh – winged lythrum
Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino – misohagi (Japan)
Lythrum californicum Torr. & A.Gray – California loosestrife
Lythrum curtissii Fernald – Curtiss' loosestrife
Lythrum flagellare Shuttlw. ex Chapm. – Florida loosestrife
Lythrum hyssopifolia L. – hyssop loosestrife, grass-poly
Lythrum junceum Banks & Sol. – false grass-poly
Lythrum lineare L. – wand lythrum

Lythrum maritimum Kunth – pūkāmole (Peru, Hawaii)
Lythrum ovalifolium Koehne – low loosestrife
Lythrum portula (L.) D.A.Webb – spatulaleaf loosestrife, water purslane
Lythrum salicaria L. – purple loosestrife
Lythrum thymifolia L. – thymeleaf loosestrife
Lythrum tribracteatum Salzm. ex Spreng. – threebract loosestrife
Lythrum virgatum L. – European wand loosestrife
Lythrum wilsonii Hewson – Wilson's loosestrife

Formerly placed here

Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F.Macbr. (as L. carthagenense Jacq.)
Cuphea melanium (L.) R.Br. ex Steud. (as L. melanium L.)
Cuphea parsonsia (L.) R.Br. ex Steud. (as L. parsonsia L.)
Cuphea racemosa subsp. racemosa (as L. racemosum L.f.)
Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. (as L. petiolatum L.)
Pleurophora anomala (A. St.-Hil.) Koehne (as L. anomalum A.St.-Hil.)
Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz (as L. fruticosum L.)[7]

Morphology

Some species of Lythrum are heterostylous, such as the tristylous (occurring in three forms) L. salicaria.[8]
Ecology

Lythrum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the small emperor moth, the engrailed, the Hebrew character, and the V-pug.
As a noxious weed in the United States

The genus Lythrum is listed as a noxious weed in Michigan, North Carolina, and Wisconsin.[9]
Fossil record

So far the oldest evidence of Lythrum is fossil pollen from the early Campanian, 82-81 Ma of Wyoming.[10]
References
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lythrum.
Wikispecies has information related to Lythrum.

Lythrum In: Species Plantarum 1: 446 (1753). APNI, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Accessed 26 February 2010.
"Genus: Lythrum L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998-04-28. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Lythrum L. USDA PLANTS.
Common name for L. junceum "Lythrum junceum (false grass-poly)". Flora of Derbyshire. Derby City Council and Derbyshire Flora Committee. February 15, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
Common name for L. wilsonii "Innamincka Regional Reserve - Flora Species List (By Family)" (PDF). National Parks and Wildlife South Australia, Department for Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
"GRIN Species Records of Lythrum". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
Eckert, C. G.; et al. (1996). "Frequency-dependent selection on morph ratios in tristylous Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae)" (PDF). Heredity. 77 (6): 581–88. doi:10.1038/hdy.1996.185. S2CID 23567206.
"Plants Profile for Lythrum alatum (winged lythrum)". plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
Graham, Shirley A. “Fossil Records in the Lythraceae.” Botanical Review, vol. 79, no. 1, 2013, pp. 48–145., www.jstor.org/stable/41809868. Accessed 20 Sept. 2020.

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