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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Magnoliids
Ordo: Magnoliales
Familiae : Annonaceae - Degeneriaceae - Eupomatiaceae - Himantandraceae - Magnoliaceae - Myristicaceae

Name

Magnoliales Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, (1820)

Type genus: Magnolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 535. (1753)

Synonyms

Annonales
Degeneriales
Eupomatiales
Himantandrales
Myristicales
Chirimoya

References

Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Sauquet, H., Doyle, J.A., Scharaschkin, T., Borsch, T., Hilu, K.W., Chatrou, L.W. & Le Thomas, A. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of Magnoliales and Myristicaceae based on multiple data sets: implications for character evolution. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 142(2): 125-186. DOI: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.00171.x Full text PDF from ResearchGateReference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: ماغنوليات
azərbaycanca: Maqnoliyaçiçəklilər
беларуская: Магноліякветныя
català: Magnolials
Cebuano: Tanom nga magnolia
čeština: Šácholanotvaré
dansk: Magnolie-ordenen
Deutsch: Magnolienartige
Esperanto: Magnolialoj
فارسی: مگنولی
Nordfriisk: Magnoolienoortagen
hrvatski: Magnolijolike
magyar: Liliomfa-virágúak, Liliomfák
перем коми: Магнолия чукӧр
한국어: 목련목
kurdî: Koma manolyayan
коми: Магнолия чукӧр
lietuvių: Magnolijiečiai
മലയാളം: മഗ്നോളിയേൽസ്
polski: Magnoliowce
русский: Магнолиецветные
slovenčina: Magnóliotvaré
svenska: Magnoliaordningen
ไทย: อันดับจำปา
українська: Магнолієцвіті
اردو: میگنولطب
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Mộc lan
中文(简体): 木兰目
中文(繁體): 木蘭目

The Magnoliales are an order of flowering plants.

Classification

The Magnoliales include six families:

Annonaceae (custard apple family, over 2000 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas; mostly tropical but some temperate)
Degeneriaceae (two species of trees found on Pacific islands)
Eupomatiaceae (two species of trees and shrubs found in New Guinea and eastern Australia)
Himantandraceae (two species of trees and shrubs, found in tropical areas in Southeast Asia and Australia)
Magnoliaceae (about 225 species including magnolias and tulip trees)
Myristicaceae (several hundred species including nutmeg)

APG system

The APG system (1998), APG II system (2003), and APG III system (2009) place this order in the clade magnoliids, circumscribed as follows:[1]
order Magnoliales

family Annonaceae
family Degeneriaceae
family Eupomatiaceae
family Himantandraceae
family Magnoliaceae
family Myristicaceae


Magnoliids

Canellales

Piperales

Magnoliales

Myristicaceae

Magnoliaceae

Degeneriaceae

Himantandraceae

Eupomatiaceae

Annonaceae

Laurales



The current composition and phylogeny of the Magnoliales.[2][3][4]

In these systems, published by the APG, the Magnoliales are a basal group, excluded from the eudicots.
Earlier systems

The Cronquist system (1981) placed the order in the subclass Magnoliidae of class Magnoliopsida (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:

order Magnoliales
family Annonaceae
family Austrobaileyaceae
family Canellaceae
family Degeneriaceae
family Eupomatiaceae
family Himantandraceae
family Lactoridaceae
family Magnoliaceae
family Myristicaceae
family Winteraceae

The Thorne system (1992) placed the order in superorder Magnolianae, subclass Magnoliidae (= dicotyledons), in the class Magnoliopsida (= angiosperms) and used this circumscription (including the plants placed in order Laurales and Piperales by other systems):

order Magnoliales
family Amborellaceae
family Annonaceae
family Aristolochiaceae
family Austrobaileyaceae
family Calycanthaceae
family Canellaceae
family Chloranthaceae
family Degeneriaceae
family Eupomatiaceae
family Gomortegaceae
family Hernandiaceae
family Himantandraceae
family Illiciaceae
family Lactoridaceae
family Lauraceae
family Magnoliaceae
family Monimiaceae
family Myristicaceae
family Piperaceae
family Saururaceae
family Schisandraceae
family Trimeniaceae
family Winteraceae

The Engler system, in its update of 1964, placed the order in subclassis Archychlamydeae in class Dicotyledoneae (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:

order Magnoliales
family Amborellaceae
family Annonaceae
family Austrobaileyaceae
family Calycanthaceae
family Canellaceae
family Cercidiphyllaceae
family Degeneriaceae
family Eupomatiaceae
family Eupteleaceae
family Gomortegaceae
family Hernandiaceae
family Himantandraceae
family Illiciaceae
family Lauraceae
family Magnoliaceae
family Monimiaceae
family Myristicaceae
family Schisandraceae
family Trimeniaceae
family Tetracentraceae
family Trochodendraceae
family Winteraceae

The Wettstein system, latest version published in 1935, did not use this name although it had an order with a similar circumscription with the name Polycarpicae. This was placed in the Dialypetalae in subclass Choripetalae of class Dicotyledones. (See also Sympetalae).

From the above it will be clear that the plants included in this order by APG have always been seen as related. They have always been placed in the order Magnoliales (or a predecessor). The difference is that earlier systems have also included other plants, which have been moved to neighbouring orders (in the magnoliids) by APG.
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x.
Soltis, P. S.; D. E. Soltis (2004). "The origin and diversification of Angiosperms". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1614–1626. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1614. PMID 21652312.
Stevens, P.F. (2001). "MAGNOLIALES Bromhead". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 13. Retrieved 30 December 2017.

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