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Malus sylvestris

Malus sylvestris (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Amygdaloideae
Tribus: Maleae
Subtribus: Malinae
Genus: Malus
Sectio: M. sect. Malus
Species: Malus sylvestris
Name

Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: Malus n.° 1 (1768).
Synonyms

Basionym
Pyrus malus var. sylvestris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 479 (1753).

Homotypic
Malus communis Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 398. 1798, nom. illeg.
Malus communis subsp. sylvestris (L.) Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 395. 1893, comb. illeg.
Malus communis var. sylvestris (L.) DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3 4(2): 429. 1805, comb. illeg.
Pyrus agriomelos Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 2: 496. 1840, nom. illeg.
Pyrus malus subsp. sylvestris (L.) Ehrh., Hannover. Mag. 1780(14): 223. 1780.
Pyrus sylvestris (L.) Focke in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(3): 24. 1888.
Pyrus sylvestris (L.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 562. 1821.

Heterotypic
Crataegus grata Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 357. 1796, nom. illeg.
Malus acerba Mérat, Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris 187. 1812.
Malus acerba var. barcinonensis Sennen, Pl. Espagne 1923 n.° 4739. 1923-24, in sched.
Malus barcinonensis (Sennen) Sennen, Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 27(1/2): 35. 1928.
Malus communis Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 5: 560. 1804.
Malus communis subsp. acerba (Mérat) Bonnier & Layens, Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France 103. 1894.
Malus communis var. acerba (Mérat) Coss. & Germ., Syn. Anal. Fl. Env. Paris ed. 2 130. 1845.
Malus communis var. austera (Wallr.) Wenz., Jahrb. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 291. 1883.
Malus communis var. glabra Coss. & Germ., Fl. Descr. Anal. Paris 186. 1845, nom. illeg.
Malus sylvestris subsp. acerba (Mérat) Mansf., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 49: 45. 1940.
Pyrenia malus (L.) Clairv., Man. Herbor. Suisse 162. 1811, p.p.
Pyrus acerba (Mérat) Lej., Fl. Spa 2: 311. 1813.
Pyrus malus f. barcinonensis (Sennen) A.Bolòs, Veg. Comarcas Barcelon. 341. 1950.
Pyrus malus proles acerba (Mérat) Rouy & E.G.Camus, Fl. France 7: 15. 1901.
Pyrus malus subsp. acerba (Mérat) Syme in Sm., Engl. Bot. ed. 3[B] 3: 255. 1864.
Pyrus malus subsp. sylvestris (L.) Schübler & G.Martens, Fl. Würtemb. 315. 1834.
Pyrus malus var. acerba (Mérat) Peterm., Fl. Lips. Excurs. 355. 1838.
Pyrus malus var. austera Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 215. 1822.
Pyrus malus var. glabra Coss. & Germ., Introd. Fl. Anal. Paris 55. 1842, nom. illeg.
Pyrus malus var. glabra W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 235. 1835, nom. illeg.
Sorbus malus (L.) Crantz, Stirp. Austr. Fasc. 2: 57. 1763., p.p.

References

Miller, P. 1768. Gard. Dict., ed. 8 Malus n.° 1.
Castroviejo, S. et al. (eds.) 2012. Malus sylvestris in Flora Ibérica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica, e Islas Baleares. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2012 May 28. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Malus sylvestris in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
العربية: تفاح حرجي
беларуская: яблыня лясная
български: киселица
català: Pomera silvestre europea
čeština: jabloň lesní
Cymraeg: Coeden Afalau Surion
dansk: Abild
Deutsch: Holzapfel
dolnoserbski: Źiwa jabłušcyna
Ελληνικά: μηλέα η δασική
English: Crab Apple
español: Manzano silvestre
eesti: Mets-õunapuu
euskara: Sagarmin
فارسی: سیب خودروی اروپایی
suomi: Metsäomenapuu
français: Pommier sauvage
furlan: Lopâr
Frysk: Wylde Apel
Gàidhlig: Goirteag
galego: Maceira brava
hornjoserbsce: Dźiwja jabłučina
magyar: Vadalma
italiano: Melo selvatico
日本語: ワイルドクラブアップル
kernowek: Gwydh krabbys
lietuvių: Miškinė obelis
Nederlands: Wilde appel
norsk: Villeple
polski: Jabłoń dzika
português: Macieira brava
русский: Яблоня лесная
slovenčina: Jabloň planá
slovenščina: Divja jablana
shqip: Molla e egër
svenska: Vildapel
Türkçe: Elma
українська: Яблуня лісова
Tiếng Việt: Táo dại châu Âu

Malus sylvestris, the European crab apple, is a species of the genus Malus, native to Europe. Its scientific name means "forest apple" and the truly wild tree has thorns.

Description

Wild apple has an expanded crown and often appears more like a bush than a tree. It can live 80–100 years and grow up to 10 m tall with trunk diameters of 23–45 cm. Due to its weak competitiveness and high light requirement, wild apple is found mostly at the wet edge of forests, in farmland hedges or on very extreme, marginal sites. Originating from Central Asia, currently known as Kazakhstan. The tree is currently rather rare but native to most European countries. It occurs in a scattered distribution pattern as single individuals or in small groups.[2]
Progenitor of cultivated apples

In the past M. sylvestris was thought to be the most important ancestor of the cultivated apple (M. domestica), which has since been shown to have been originally derived from the central Asian species M. sieversii.[3] However another recent DNA analysis[4] confirms that M. sylvestris has contributed significantly to the genome.

The study found that secondary introgression from other species of the genus Malus has greatly shaped the genome of M. domestica, with M. sylvestris being the largest secondary contributor. It also found that current populations of M. domestica are more closely related to M. sylvestris than to M. sieversii. However, in more pure strains of M. domestica, the M. sieversii ancestry still predominates.

The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by insects.
Pests

Its leaves are food of the caterpillars of the twin-spotted sphinx (Smerinthus jamaicensis) and possibly the hawthorn moth (Scythropia crataegella).

See also

List of Lepidoptera that feed on Malus

References

"Malus sylvestris (Crab Apple, European Crab Apple, Pommier Sauvage)". Iucnredlist.org. 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
Stephan, B.R.; Wagner, I. & Kleinschmit, J. (2003), Wild apple and pear - Malus sylvestris/Pyrus pyraster: Technical guidelines of genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-20, retrieved 2016-10-20
Velasco R., Zharkikh A., Affourtit J. et al., The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Nature Genetics, 2010, 42, 10, 833

Coart, E., Van Glabeke, S., De Loose, M., Larsen, A.S., Roldán-Ruiz, I. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Mol. Ecol. 15 (8): 2171-82.

Sources

M.H.A. Hoffman, List of names of woody plants, Applied Plant Research, Boskoop 2005.
RHS dictionary of gardening, 1992

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