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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Helenieae
Subtribus: Marshalliinae
Genus: Marshallia
Species: M. caespitosa - M. grandiflora – M. graminifolia – M. legrandii – M. mohrii– M. obovata – M. ramosa – M. trinervia

Source(s) of checklist:

Marshallia Schreb., 1791

Persoonia Michx. 1803, illegitimate name not Sm.1798 (Proteaceae) nor Willd. 1799 (Meliaceae)
Trattenikia Pers.
Phyteumopsis Juss. ex Poir.


Schreb., Genera Plantarum 2: 810. 1791.


International Plant Names Index. 2018. Marshallia. Published online. Accessed: January 28 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Marshallia in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 28.
Tropicos.org 2018. Marshallia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 28.
Hassler, M. 2018. Marshallia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 28. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Barbara's Buttons
русский: Марсаллия

Marshallia is a genus of plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family.[3][4] Marshallia is native to the southeastern and south-central United States.[5] A common name applied to most species in the genus is Barbara's buttons.


Marshallia is found in open habitats, such as roadsides, bogs, or open woodlands dominated by pines. Several species are associated with wetlands.[6]

The typical blooming period is late spring (May) and early summer (June or early July). The small white-to-pinkish flowers occur in large, compact, spherical heads Marshallia are very attractive to pollinating insects, including butterflies and various beetles, such as flower chafers of the genus Euphoria.[7]


Marshallia angustifolia (Michx.) Pursh - TN[9]
Marshallia caespitosa Nutt. ex DC., Puffballs.[10] - TX OK KS MO AR LA
Marshallia graminifolia (Walt.) Small, Grassleaf Barbara's buttons.[11] - TX LA MS AL GA FL SC NC
†Marshallia grandiflora Beadle & F.E. Boynt., Appalachian Barbara's buttons.[12][13][14] - NC
Marshallia legrandii Weakley, Tall Barbara's buttons. - NC, VA
Marshallia mohrii Beadle & F.E. Boynt, Mohr's Barbara's buttons.[15] - AL GA
Marshallia obovata (Walt.) Beadle & F.E. Boynt. Spoonshape Barbara's buttons. - TN AL GA FL SC NC VA
Marshallia pulchra W.M. Knapp, D.B. Poind. & Weakley Beautiful Barbara’s buttons. [12][13][14] - TN KY WV MD PA
Marshallia ramosa Beadle & F.E.Boynt., Southern Barbara's buttons. - FL GA
Marshallia trinervia (Walt.) Trel., Broadleaf Barbara's buttons. - LA MS AL GA SC NC TN


One species in the genus, Marshallia grandiflora (Appalachian Barbara's buttons) is extinct, having been wiped out in the early 20th century. It was formerly considered conspecific with Marshallia pulchra (Beautiful Barbara's buttons or Monongahela Barbara's buttons), which is endangered in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee, and has been extirpated in Maryland. That species is found in bogs and scoured riverbanks, and requires periodic flooding to maintain open habitat.[16] Marshallia obovata (Spoonshape Barbara's buttons or Piedmont Barbara's buttons), is listed as endangered in Florida and threatened in Tennessee.[17]

The genus name was given by the botanist Schreber (in Genera Plantarum, 1791) to honor the Marshall family, uncle Humphry and nephew Moses, of Pennsylvania. They were botanists of the American colonial period, and cousins of the famous botanists and explorers John and William Bartram.

The origin of the common name "Barbara's buttons" is unknown. The flower heads do resemble buttons, but botanical references giving this name do not quote the Barbara which the name honors (Rickett 1975). The reference is possibly to Saint Barbara, though the association is obscure. Saint Barbara had long hair, and is also associated with lightning—perhaps the individual flowers resemble lightning bolts, or the whole head of flowers resembles Saint Barbara's long locks (Coin 2005). This common name was not, at any rate, widespread in the 19th century. It was not used in Southern Wildflowers and Trees (1901) or Plant Life Of Alabama (1901). The botanist B.W. Wells, in Natural Gardens of North Carolina (1932), called the plants "loudspeakers", referring to the megaphone shape of the individual flowers. The first printed use of the name "Barbara's buttons" is in Small's Manual of the Southeastern Flora (1933).

Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-11-06 at archive.today
Tropicos search for Marshallia
Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von. 1791. Genera Plantarum 2: 810
Tropicos, Marshallia Schreb.
Flora of North America, Vol. 21 Page 456, Marshallia Schreber, Gen. Pl. 2: 810. 1791.
Coin, Patrick (2005). Marshallia – beetle magnet. New Hope Audubon Society Newsletter 31 (3): 2. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: New Hope Audubon Society.
Biota of North America PRogram 2013 county distribution maps
Tropicos, Persoonia angustifolia Michx.
USDA Plants Profile for Marshallia caespitosa (puffballs)
USDA Plants Profile for Marshallia graminifolia (grassleaf Barbara's buttons)
USDA Plants Profile for Marshallia grandiflora (Monongahela Barbara's buttons)
Knapp, Wesley M.; Poindexter, Derick B.; Weakley, Alan S. (2020-06-04). "The true identity of Marshallia grandiflora , an extinct species, and the description of Marshallia pulchra (Asteraceae, Helenieae, Marshalliinae)". Phytotaxa. 447 (1): 1–15. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.447.1.1. ISSN 1179-3163.
"Newly Discovered Wetland Flower in North Carolina Already Extinct". Center for Biological Diversity. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
USDA Plants Profile for Marshallia mohrii (Mohr's Barbara's buttons)
"Newly Discovered Wetland Flower in North Carolina Already Extinct". Center for Biological Diversity. Retrieved 2020-06-28.

(Center for Plant Conservation, USDA Plants)

Channell, Robert Bennie (1955). A revisional study of the genus Marshallia Schreb (Compositae). Thesis (Ph. D.) Duke University.
Duncan, Wilbur H., Marion B. Duncan (1999). Wildflowers of the Eastern United States. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2107-9.
Lounsberry, Alice (1901). Southern Wild Flowers and Trees. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company.
Mohr, Charles T. (1901). Plant Life Of Alabam'. Montgomery, Alabama: Brown Printing Company.
Porcher, Richard D., Douglas A. Rayner (2002), A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-437-0.
Radford, Albert E., H.E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell (1968). Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1087-8.
Rickett, Harold (1975). Wildflowers of the United States II(2): 630. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Small, John Kunkel (1933). Manual of Southeastern Flora. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Wells, B.W. (1932, reprint 2002). Natural Gardens of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4993-6.
Center for Plant Conservation account for Marshallia grandiflora, accessed 25 May 2006
USDA . accessed 25 May 2006
BugGuide . accessed 25 May 2006

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