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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Brassicales

Familia: Brassicaceae
Tribus: Anchonieae
Genus: Matthiola
Sectiones: M. sect. Aciloma – M. sect. Acinotum – M. sect. Matthiola – unassigned
Species: M. afghanica – M. alyssifolia – M. anchoniifolia – M. arabica – M. bucharica – M. capiomontana – M. caspica – M. chenopodiifolia – M. chorassanica – M. codringtonii – M. crassifolia – M. czerniakowskae – M. daghestanica – M. damascena – M. dumulosa – M. erlangeriana – M. farinosa – M. flavida – M. fragrans – M. fruticulosa – M. ghorana – M. glutinosa – M. graminea – M. incana – M. longipetala – M. lunata – M. macranica – M. maderensis – M. maroccana – M. masguindalii – M. montana – M. obovata – M. odoratissima – M. ovatifolia – M. parviflora – M. perpusilla – M. revoluta – M. robusta – M. saxatilis – M. sinuata – M. spathulata – M. stoddartii – M. subglabra – M. superba – M. tatarica – M. tenella – M. tianschanica – M. torulosa – M. tricuspidata – M. trojana

Matthiola R.Br. in W.T.Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 4: 119. 1812 (as “Mathiola”), nom. cons. & orth. cons.

Type species: M. incana (L.) R.Br. in W.T.Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 4: 119. 1812


Mathiolaria Chev., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 910. 1827 publ. 1828.

Acinotum (DC.) Rchb., Handb. 260. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Luperia (DC.) Rchb., Handb. 260. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Pinaria (DC.) Rchb., Handb. 260. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Lonchophora Durieu
Pirazzia Chiov.
Triceras Andrz. ex Rchb. (1828), non Lobarz. (1840)

Primary references

Aiton, W.T. 1812. Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. 2nd Edn., Vol. IV. iii + 532 pp., Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London. BHL. Reference page.

Additional references

Gowler Z.R. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the genus Matthiola R.Br. (Cruciferae) and related genera. Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. online


International Plant Names Index. 2016. Matthiola. Published online. Accessed: Dec. 4 2016.
Koch, M.A. et al. 2019. Matthiola in BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 4.
Tropicos.org 2016. Matthiola. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Dec. 4.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Levkojen
English: Stocks
suomi: Leukoijat
Nordfriisk: Lakeuen
français: Giroflées
polski: Lewkonia
русский: Левкой

Matthiola (/ˌmæθiˈoʊlə/) is a genus of flowering plant in the mustard family Brassicaceae.[2] It is named after Italian naturalist Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501-1577). The genus contains about 50 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants and subshrubs.[1][3][4][5] Many are cultivated for their heavily scented, colorful flowers.
Matthiola incana
Matthiola fruticulosa ssp. fruticulosa
Matthiola incana

The common name stock may be applied to the whole genus, more specifically to varieties and cultivars of Matthiola incana. The common names evening stock and night-scented stock are applied to varieties of Matthiola longipetala (syn. M. bicornis).[6] The common name Virginia stock refers to a separate genus of the same family (Malcolmia maritima).


The following species are accepted:[1]

Matthiola afghanica Rech.f. & Köie
Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor.
Matthiola arabica Boiss.
Matthiola aspera Boiss.
Matthiola boissieri Grossh.
Matthiola bolleana Webb ex Christ
Matthiola bucharica Czerniak.
Matthiola caspica (N.Busch) Grossh.
Matthiola chenopodiifolia Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Matthiola chorassanica Bunge ex Boiss.
Matthiola codringtonii Rech.f.
Matthiola crassifolia Boiss. & Gaill.
Matthiola czerniakowskae Botsch. & Vved.
Matthiola daghestanica (Conti) N.Busch
Matthiola damascena Boiss.
Matthiola dumulosa Boiss. & Buhse
Matthiola erlangeriana Engl.
Matthiola farinosa Bunge ex Boiss.
Matthiola flavida Boiss.
Matthiola fragrans (Fisch.) Bunge
Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire – sad stock
Matthiola ghorana Rech.f.
Matthiola glutinosa Jafri
Matthiola graminea Rech.f.
Matthiola incana (L.) W.T.Aiton – stock, hoary stock, gilly-flower
Matthiola integrifolia Kom.
Matthiola kralikii Pomel
Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. – night-scented stock
Matthiola lunata DC.
Matthiola macranica Rech.f.
Matthiola maderensis Lowe
Matthiola maroccana Coss.
Matthiola montana Boiss.
Matthiola obovata Bunge
Matthiola odoratissima (M.Bieb.) W.T.Aiton
Matthiola parviflora (Schousb.) W.T.Aiton
Matthiola perennis Conti
Matthiola perpusilla Rech.f.
Matthiola puntensis Hedge & A.G.Mill.
Matthiola revoluta Bunge ex Boiss.
Matthiola robusta Bunge
Matthiola scapifera Humbert
Matthiola shehbazii Ranjbar & Karami
Matthiola shiraziana Zeraatkar, Khosravi, F.Ghahrem., Al-Shehbaz & Assadi
Matthiola sinuata (L.) W.T.Aiton – sea stock
Matthiola spathulata Conti
Matthiola stoddartii Bunge
Matthiola superba Conti
Matthiola tatarica (Pall.) DC.
Matthiola taurica (Conti) Grossh.
Matthiola tianschanica Sarkisova
Matthiola tomentosa Bél.
Matthiola torulosa (Thunb.) DC.
Matthiola tricuspidata (L.) W.T.Aiton – three-horned stock
Matthiola trojana Dirmenci, Satil & Tümen


Wild Matthiola in Behbahan, Iran

Wild Matthiola in Behbahan, Iran
Wild Matthiola in Behbahan, Iran

Wild Matthiola in Behbahan, Iran


"Matthiola W.T.Aiton". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. 606–07.
Jaén-Molina, R., et al. (2009) The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br.(Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics. Archived 2014-02-28 at the Wayback Machine Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53(3) 972-81.
Matthiola. Flora of China.
Sanchez, J. L., et al. (2005). Genetic differentiation of three species of Matthiola (Brassicaceae) in the Sicilian insular system. Archived 2014-02-28 at the Wayback Machine Plant Systematics and Evolution 253(1-4) 81-93.

RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.

Pink, A. (2004). Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.

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