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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Orobanchaceae
Tribus: Rhinantheae
Genus: Melampyrum
Species: M. arvense – M. carpathicum – M. cristatum – M. henryanum – M. klebelsbergianum – M. laciniatum – M. latifolium – M. laxum – M. lineare – M. moravicum – M. nemorosum – M. polonicum – M. pratense – M. roseum – M. setaceum – M. subalpinum – M. sylvaticum

Name

Melampyrum L. Sp. Pl. 2: 605. (1753) nom. et typ. cons.
Type species: Melampyrum pratense L. Sp. Pl. 605. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Marinellia Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 1: 261. (1897)
Chingyungia Ai, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 15(2): 181 (1995)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 605.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Melampyrum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Feb. 12. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2921. 19. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 2921.
Tropicos.org 2014. Melampyrum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Feb. 12.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Братаўка
български: Гайтаника
čeština: černýš
dansk: Kohvede
Deutsch: Wachtelweizen
English: Cow Wheat
Esperanto: Melampiro
eesti: Härghein
suomi: Maitikat
français: Mélampyre
hornjoserbsce: Sparik
magyar: Csormolya
日本語: ママコナ属
ქართული: სანთელა
қазақша: Балқызыл
한국어: 꽃며느리밥풀속
lietuvių: Kūpolis
Nederlands: Zwartkoren
norsk nynorsk: Marimjelleslekta
norsk: Marimjeller
polski: Pszeniec
русский: Марьянник
davvisámegiella: Sáhpalat
slovenčina: čermeľ
svenska: Kovallsläktet
українська: Перестріч
中文: 山罗花属

Melampyrum is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Orobanchaceae known commonly as cow wheat. They are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are hemiparasites on other plants, obtaining water and nutrients from host plants, though they are able to survive on their own without parasitising other plants.[1]

Melampyrum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the mouse moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis).

Phylogeny

The phylogeny of the genera of Rhinantheae has been explored using molecular characters.[2][3] Melampyrum appears as a distant relative of other genera of Rhinantheae. It is the sister group of two clades: (i) Rhynchocorys, Lathraea, and Rhinanthus ; and (ii) the core Rhinantheae containing Bartsia, Euphrasia, Tozzia, Hedbergia, Bellardia, and Odontites.
Genus-level cladogram of tribe Rhinantheae.
Rhinantheae

Melampyrum



Rhynchocorys


Lathraea

Rhinanthus



Core Rhinantheae

Bartsia sensu stricto (Bartsia alpina)


Euphrasia


Tozzia

Hedbergia
(including Bartsia decurva + B. longiflora)


Bellardia


Neobartsia
(New World Bartsia)

Parentucellia



Odontites sensu lato
(including Bornmuellerantha
and Bartsiella)






The cladogram has been reconstructed from nuclear and plastid DNA molecular characters (ITS, rps16 intron and trnK region).[2][3]
Taxonomy
Selected species

Melampyrum arvense (field cow-wheat). Europe.
Melampyrum cristatum (crested cow-wheat). Europe.
Melampyrum klebelsbergianum. Asia.
Melampyrum koreanum.[1] Asia.
Melampyrum laxum. Asia.
Melampyrum lineare (narrowleaf cow-wheat). North America.
Melampyrum nemorosum (wood cow-wheat). Europe.
Melampyrum pratense (common cow-wheat). Europe.
Melampyrum roseum. Asia.
Melampyrum saxosum. Europe.
Melampyrum sylvaticum (small cow-wheat). Europe.

References

Kim, K. and S. Yun. (2012). A new species of Melampyrum (Orobanchaceae) from southern Korea. Phytotaxa 42 48-50.
Těšitel, Jakub; Říha, Pavel; Svobodová, Šárka; Malinová, Tamara; Štech, Milan (2010-10-28). "Phylogeny, Life History Evolution and Biogeography of the Rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae". Folia Geobotanica. 45 (4): 347–367. doi:10.1007/s12224-010-9089-y. ISSN 1211-9520. S2CID 39873516.
Scheunert, Agnes; Fleischmann, Andreas; Olano-Marín, Catalina; Bräuchler, Christian; Heubl, Günther (2012-12-14). "Phylogeny of tribe Rhinantheae (Orobanchaceae) with a focus on biogeography, cytology and re-examination of generic concepts". Taxon. 61 (6): 1269–1285. doi:10.1002/tax.616008.

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