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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: Andropogoneae
Subtribus: Saccharinae
Genus: Miscanthus
Species: M. changii – M. depauperatus – M. ecklonii – M. floridulus – M. fuscus – M. junceus – M. lutarioriparius – M. nepalensis – M. nudipes – M. oligostachyus – M. paniculatus – M. saccariflorus – M. sinensis – M. tinctorius – M. villosus – M. violaceus

Nothospecies: M. x ogiformis
Name

Miscanthus Andersson, Öfvers. Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh. 12: 165 (1855)
Type species: Miscanthus ecklonii (Nees) Mabb., Taxon 33: 442 (1984)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Xiphagrostis Coville in Safford, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 9: 399 (1905).
Miscanthidium Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 89 (1917).
Sclerostachya (Andersson ex Hack.) A.Camus in H.Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 7: 243 (1922).
Triarrhena (Maxim.) Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 25: 7 (1950).
Diandranthus L.Liou, in Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. 10(2): 10 (1997).
Rubimons B.S.Sun in B.S.Sun & S.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 19: 239 (1997).

References

Andersson, N.L. (1855) Öfversigt af Förhandlingar: Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademien 12: 165.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2013. Miscanthus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 20. Reference page.
Hodkinson, T.R., Chase, M.W., Lledó, D.M., Salamin, N. & Renvoize, S.A. (2002) Phylogenetics of Miscanthus, Saccharum and related genera (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on DNA sequences from ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacers. Journal of Plant Research 115 (5): 381–392. DOI: 10.1007/s10265-002-0049-3 Full text available from ResearchGate Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Miscanthus. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 20.
Tropicos.org 2013. Miscanthus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 20.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Miscanthus. Published online. Accessed: 20 Nov. 2013.

Vernacular names
অসমীয়া: খাগৰি
suomi: Norsunheinät
日本語: すすき

Miscanthus, or silvergrass,[2] is a genus of African, Eurasian, and Pacific Island plants in the grass family.[3][4]

Species[5][6]

Miscanthus changii Y.N.Lee – Korea
Miscanthus depauperatus Merr. – Philippines
Miscanthus ecklonii (Nees) Mabb. – southern Africa
Miscanthus floridulus – China, Japan, Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands
Miscanthus fuscus (Roxb.) Benth. – Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, Pen Malaysia
Miscanthus junceus – southern Africa
Miscanthus lutarioriparius L.Liu ex S.L.Chen & Renvoize – Hubei, Hunan
Miscanthus nepalensis (Trin.) Hack. – Indian Subcontinent, Tibet, Yunnan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Pen Malaysia
Miscanthus nudipes (Griseb.) Hack. – Assam, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet, Yunnan
Miscanthus × ogiformis Honda – Korea, Japan
Miscanthus oligostachyus Stapf. – Korea, Japan
Miscanthus paniculatus (B.S.Sun) S.L.Chen & Renvoize – Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
Miscanthus sacchariflorus – Korea, Japan, northeastern China, Russian Far East
Miscanthus sinensis – Korea, Japan, China, Southeast Asia, Russian Far East; naturalized in New Zealand, North + South America
Miscanthus tinctorius (Steud.) Hack. – Japan
Miscanthus villosus Y.C.Liu & H.Peng – Yunnan
Miscanthus violaceus (K.Schum.) Pilg. – tropical Africa

formerly included[5]

see Chloris, Pseudopogonatherum, Saccharum, and Spodiopogon

Miscanthus affinis – Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve
Miscanthus cotulifer – Spodiopogon cotulifer
Miscanthus polydactylos – Chloris elata
Miscanthus rufipilus – Saccharum rufipilum
Miscanthus tanakae – Pseudopogonatherum speciosum

Miscanthus sinensis
Winter miscanthus, an ornamental grass, growing in Southern Ontario, Canada
Main article: Miscanthus sinensis

M. sinensis is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, and is the source of several cultivars. In Japan, where it is known as susuki (すすき), it is considered an iconic plant of late summer and early autumn. It is mentioned in Man'yōshū (VIII:1538) as one of the seven autumn flowers (aki no nana kusa, 秋の七草). It is used for the eighth month in hanafuda playing cards. It is decorated with bush clover for the Mid-Autumn Festival. Miscanthus has also excellent fiber properties for papermaking.
Miscanthus × giganteus
Miscanthus x giganteus, an energy crop, growing in Germany
Main article: Miscanthus x giganteus

Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus giganteus, giant miscanthus) [7] is a highly productive, rhizomatous C4 perennial grass, originating from Asia.[8] It is a sterile (non-invasive) hybrid of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, and grows to heights of more than 4 meters (12 feet) in one growing season (from the third season onwards). In temperate climates such as in Europe the dry mass yield is 10-40 tonnes per hectare per year (4-16 tonnes per acre), depending on location. [9] Just like Pennisetum purpureum and Saccharum ravennae (which grow to the same height), it is also called «elephant grass».

Miscanthus' ability to grow on marginal land and in relatively cold weather conditions, its rapid CO2 absorption, its significant carbon sequestration and its high yield make it a favorite choice as a biofuel. [10]

Miscanthus is mainly used for heat and power, but can also be used as input for ethanol production (if harvested wet). If harvested dry, Miscanthus can be burnt directly in biomass boilers, or processed further (pellets, briquettes). It can also be used as a "green" building material, for both wall construction and as general insulation. An experimental house based on Miscanthus straw bales was built in 2017. [11]Miscanthus cropping enhance the nutrient cycling in the plant–soil system. [12]
References

lectotype designated by Coville, Contr.
"Miscanthus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
Andersson, Nils Johan. 1855. Öfversigt af Förhandlingar: Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademien 12: 165.
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 581 芒属 mang shu Miscanthus Andersson, Öfvers. Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh. 12: 165. 1855.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
The Plant List search for Miscanthus
"Recent classification work at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, England has designated it as M. x giganteus […], a hybrid of M. sinensis […] and M. sacchariflorus […]." Eric Anderson, Rebecca Arundale, Matthew Maughan, Adebosola Oladeinde, Andrew Wycislo & Thomas Voigt (2011) Growth and agronomy of Miscanthus x giganteus for biomass production, Biofuels, 2:1, page 71. https://doi.org/10.4155/bfs.10.80
«M. × giganteus is a highly productive, sterile, rhizomatous C4 perennial grass that was collected in Yokahama, Japan in 1935 by Aksel Olsen. It was taken to Denmark where it was cultivated and spread throughout Europe and into North America for planting in horticultural settings.» Eric Anderson, Rebecca Arundale, Matthew Maughan, Adebosola Oladeinde, Andrew Wycislo & Thomas Voigt (2011) Growth and agronomy of Miscanthus x giganteus for biomass production, Biofuels, 2:1, page 71. https://doi.org/10.4155/bfs.10.80
«The majority of the literature reporting dry biomass yield for M. × giganteus originates from European studies. Ceiling peak biomass yields in established stands of M. x giganteus have approached 40 t dry matter (DM) ha-1 in some European locations, although it may take 3–5 years to achieve these ceiling yields [84]. Across Europe, harvestable yields of up to 25 t DM ha-1 from established stands of M. × giganteus have been reported in areas between central Germany and southern Italy, while peak yields in central and northern Europe have ranged between 10–25 t DM ha-1, and in excess of 30 t DM ha-1 in southern Europe [3]. A quantitative review of established M. × giganteus stands across Europe reported a mean peak biomass yield of 22 t DM ha-1, averaged across N rates and precipitation levels [1].» Eric Anderson, Rebecca Arundale, Matthew Maughan, Adebosola Oladeinde, Andrew Wycislo & Thomas Voigt (2011) Growth and agronomy of Miscanthus x giganteus for biomass production, Biofuels, 2:1, page 79. https://doi.org/10.4155/bfs.10.80
«Field experiments with the only genotype currently commercially available, Miscanthus x giganteus, a clone-based interspecies hybrid, have revealed its great photosynthetic efficiency, high biomass yield capacity, low input demands and good tolerance of temperate climates, and many of the characteristics that make miscanthus an ideal biomass crop.» Lewandowski I, Clifton-Brown J, Trindade LM, van der Linden GC, Schwarz K-U, Müller-Sämann K, Anisimov A, Chen C-L, Dolstra O, Donnison IS, Farrar K, Fonteyne S, Harding G, Hastings A, Huxley LM, Iqbal Y, Khokhlov N, Kiesel A, Lootens P, Meyer H, Mos M, Muylle H, Nunn C, Özgüven M, Roldán-Ruiz I, Schüle H, Tarakanov I, van der Weijde T, Wagner M, Xi Q and Kalinina O (2016) Progress on Optimizing Miscanthus Biomass Production for the European Bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 Project OPTIMISC. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:1620. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01620
Blog of Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales: "The world’s first Miscanthus bale house". Retrieved 2017-11-27
Willy H. Verheye, ed. (2010). "Perennial Energy Crops: Growth and Management". Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production Volume III. EOLSS Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-84826-369-7.

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