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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Oryzoideae
Tribus: Oryzeae
Subtribus: Oryzinae
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. alta – O. australiensis – O. barthii – O. brachyantha – O. coarctata – O. eichingeri – O. glaberrima – O. grandiglumis – O. granulata – O. latifolia – O. longiglumis – O. longistaminata – O. malampuzhaensis – O. meridionalis – O. meyeriana – O. minuta – O. neocaledonica – O. nivara – O. officinalis – O. punctata – O. rhizomatis – O. ridleyi – O. rufipogon – O. sativa – O. schlechteri
Name

Oryza L., Sp. Pl. 1: 333 (1753)

Type species: Oryza sativa L. Sp. Pl. 1: 333 (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Padia Moritzi in H.Zollinger, Syst. Verz. Ind. Archip. 2: 103 (1854)
Porteresia Tateoka, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo, B 8: 406 (1965)
Indoryza A.N.Henry & B.Roy, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10: 274 (1969), nom. superfl.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 133.
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards) GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Oryza. Published online. Accessed 24 Sept. 2013.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Oryza in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Sept. 21. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Oryza. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 21.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Oryza. Published online. Accessed: 21. Sept. 2013.
Oryza – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
GBIF.
Tieyan Liu,Mingsheng Chen. Genome evolution of Oryza. Biodiversity Science, 2014, 22(1): 51–65.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Рыс
English: Rice
suomi: Riisit
français: Riz
தமிழ்: நெல்
中文: 稻属

Oryza is a genus of plants in the grass family.[3][4] It includes the major food crop rice (species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima). Members of the genus grow as tall, wetland grasses, growing to 1–2 m tall; the genus includes both annual and perennial species.[5]

Oryza is situated in tribe Oryzeae, which is characterized morphologically by its single-flowered spikelets whose glumes are almost completely suppressed. In Oryza, two sterile lemma simulate glumes. The tribe Oryzeae is in subfamily Ehrhartoideae,[6] a group of Poaceae tribes with certain features of internal leaf anatomy in common. The most distinctive leaf characteristics of this subfamily are the arm cells and fusoid cells found in their leaves.[7][verification needed]

Inside the genus Oryza, species can be divided by their genomes types. They include the diploid (2n = 24) AA of cultivated rice, BB, CC, EE, FF and GG as well as the tetraploid (4n = 48) BBCC, CCDD, HHJJ, HHKK and KKLL. Species of the same genome type cross easily, while hybridizing different types requires techniques like embryo rescue.[8][9]

One species, Asian rice (O. sativa), provides 20% of global grain and is a food crop of major global importance. The species are divided into two subgroups within the genus.

Species

Over 300 names have been proposed for species, subspecies, and other infraspecific taxa within the genus. Published sources disagree as to how many of these should be recognized as distinct species. The following follows the World Checklist maintained by Kew Garden in London.[2]

Oryza australiensis (EE) – Australia
Oryza barthii (AA) – tropical Africa
Oryza brachyantha (FF) – tropical Africa
Oryza coarctata (KKLL) – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar
Oryza eichingeri (CC) – tropical Africa, Sri Lanka
Oryza glaberrima (AA) – African rice – tropical Africa
Oryza grandiglumis (CCDD) – Brazil, Venezuela, Fr Guiana, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia
Oryza latifolia (CCDD) – Latin America + West Indies from Sinaloa + Cuba to Argentina
Oryza longiglumis (HHJJ) – New Guinea
Oryza longistaminata (AA) – Madagascar, tropical + southern Africa
Oryza meyeriana (GG) – China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia
Oryza minuta (BBCC) – Himalayas, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Northern Territory of Australia
Oryza neocaledonica (GG) – New Caledonia
Oryza officinalis (CC) – China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia
Oryza punctata (BB) – Madagascar, tropical + southern Africa
Oryza ridleyi (HHJJ) – Southeast Asia, New Guinea
Oryza rufipogon (AA) – brownbeard or red rice – China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia
Oryza sativa (AA) – Asian rice – China, Indian Subcontinent, Japan, Southeast Asia; naturalized many places
Oryza schlechteri (HHKK) – New Guinea

Formerly included

Many species now regarded as better suited to other genera:[2]

Echinochloa
Leersia
Maltebrunia
Potamophila
Prosphytochloa
Rhynchoryza

See also

Specialized metabolism in Oryza

References

lectotype designated by Duistermaat, Blumea 32: 174 (1987)
"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 333. in Latin
"Tropicos | Name – Oryza L." www.tropicos.org. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
"Oryza in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
Kellogg, E.A. (30 January 2009). "The Evolutionary History of Ehrhartoideae, Oryzeae, and Oryza". Rice. 2: 1–14. doi:10.1007/s12284-009-9022-2.
Heywood, V.H. Flowering Plants of the World 1993 Oxford University Press
Stein, Joshua C.; Yu, Yeisoo; Copetti, Dario; Zwickl, Derrick J.; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Chengjun; Chougule, Kapeel; Gao, Dongying; Iwata, Aiko; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wei, Sharon; Wang, Jun; Liao, Yi; Wang, Muhua; Jacquemin, Julie; Becker, Claude; Kudrna, Dave; Zhang, Jianwei; Londono, Carlos E. M.; Song, Xiang; Lee, Seunghee; Sanchez, Paul; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ammiraju, Jetty S. S.; Talag, Jayson; Danowitz, Ann; Rivera, Luis F.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Noutsos, Christos; Wu, Cheng-chieh; Kao, Shu-min; Zeng, Jhih-wun; Wei, Fu-jin; Zhao, Qiang; Feng, Qi; El Baidouri, Moaine; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Lasserre, Eric; Cooke, Richard; Rosa Farias, Daniel da; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; dos Santos, Railson S.; Nyberg, Kevin G.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Mauleon, Ramil; Alexandrov, Nickolai; Schmutz, Jeremy; Flowers, Dave; Fan, Chuanzhu; Weigel, Detlef; Jena, Kshirod K.; Wicker, Thomas; Chen, Mingsheng; Han, Bin; Henry, Robert; Hsing, Yue-ie C.; Kurata, Nori; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; Panaud, Olivier; Jackson, Scott A.; Machado, Carlos A.; Sanderson, Michael J.; Long, Manyuan; Ware, Doreen; Wing, Rod A. (22 January 2018). "Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza". Nature Genetics. 50 (2): 285–296. doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0040-0. PMID 29358651.
Ammi'Raju, Jetty; Song, Xiang; Luo, Meizhong; Sisneros, Nicholas; Angelova, Angelina; Kudrna, David; Kim, Hyeran; Yu, Yeisoo; Goicoechea, Jose; Lorieux, Mathias; Kurata, Nori; Brar, Darshan; Jackson, Scott; Wing, Rod (1 December 2010). "The Oryza BAC resource: A genus-wide and genome scale tool for exploring rice genome evolution and leveraging useful genetic diversity from wild relatives". Breeding Science. 60 (5): 536–543. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.60.536.

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