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Ostrya carpinifolia

Ostrya carpinifolia (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Betulaceae
Subfamilia: Coryloideae
Genus: Ostrya
Species: Ostrya carpinifolia
Name

Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Fl. Carniol. ed. 2, 2: 244 (1772).
Synonyms

Basionym
Carpinus ostrya L., Sp. Pl.: 998 (1753).
Homotypic
Ostrya vulgaris Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 469 (1805), nom. superfl.
Ostrya italica P.Micheli ex Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 11: 216 (1842), nom. superfl.
Ostrya carpinifolia var. genuina Fliche, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 35: 166 (1888), not validly publ.
Ostrya italica subsp. carpinifolia (Scop.) H.J.P.Winkl. in H.G.A.Engler (ed.), Pflanzenr., IV, 61: 22 (1904), nom. illeg.
Heterotypic
Carpinus italica Scop. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 300 (1840), pro syn.
Ostrya ladelcii Sanguin., Fl. Roman. Prodr. Alt.: 818 (1864).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
Ostrya carpinifolia

Europe
Middle Europe
Austria, Hungary†, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
Corse, France, Sardegna.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Serbia).
Asia-Temperate
Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus (Abkhazia, Adzhariya, Gruziya).
Western Asia
Lebanon-Syria, Turkey.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Scopoli, J.A. 1772. Flora Carniolica exhibens plantas Carnioliae indigenas et distributas in classes, genera, species, varietates, ordine Linnaeano. Editio secunda aucta et reformata. Tom. II. 496 pp., tab. 33–65, Vindobona: Impensis Ioannis Pauli Krauss. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.

Additional references

Bobrov, E.G. 1936. Ostrya carpinifolia. Pp. 201 in Komarov, V.L. (eds.), Flora URSS (Flora Unionis Rerumpublicarum Sovieticarum Socialisticarum) V. [Saururaceae – Polygonaceae]. Russian page 1-735 - English page 1-587, Academia Scientiarum URSS, Mosqua, Leningrad. DJVU BHL (English translation) Reference page.
Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) 1984. Med-Checklist. A critical inventory of vascular plants of the circum-mediterranean countries. Vol. 1: Pteridophyta (ed. 2), Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones (Acanthaceae – Cneoraceae). c + 330 pp., Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève 1984. ISBN 2-8277-0151-0. Online version. Reference page.
Andreev, N., Ančev, M.E., Kožuharov, S.I., Markova, M.L., Peev, D.R. & Petrova, A.V. 1992. Opredelitel na visšite rastenija na Bălgarija [in Bulgarian]. 787 p. Nauka i izkustvo, Sofija. Reference page.
Micevski, K. 1993. Flora na Republika Makedonija 1(2). Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts Skopje. Reference page.
Strid, A. & Tan, K. (eds.) 1997. Flora Hellenica. Volume One (Gymnospermae to Caryophyllaceae). Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, 547 pp. ISBN 3-87429-391-2. Reference page.
Govaerts, R.H.A. & Frodin, D. 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae). VIII + 408 p. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-900347-46-6. Reference page.
Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M. & Babaç, M.T. (eds.) 2012. Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını. İstanbul. ISBN 978-605-60425-7-7. Online edition. Reference page.
Vangjeli, J. 2017. Flora Albanica. Atlas Vol. 1. Pteridophyta – Apiaceae. 933 pp.. Koeltz Botanical Books, Schmidten-Obereifenberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-946583-08-0. Reference page.

Links

Shaw, K., Roy , S. & Wilson, B. 2014. Ostrya carpinifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014. IUCN Red List Category: Least Concern. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194280A2309186.en.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Ostrya carpinifolia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 March 12. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Ostrya carpinifolia. Published online. Accessed: 12 March 2021.

Vernacular names
العربية: أوستريا شردية الأوراق
Boarisch: Stoanbuach
български: Обикновен воден габър
català: Òstria
čeština: Habrovec habrolistý
dansk: Almindelig humlebøg
Deutsch: Europäische Hopfenbuche
English: European Hop-hornbeam
español: Ostria
فارسی: چوب‌استخوانی اروپایی
suomi: Euroopanhumalapyökki
français: Charme-houblon
hrvatski: Crni grab
magyar: Komlógyertyán
italiano: Carpino nero
македонски: Црн габер
Nederlands: Europese hopbeuk
norsk: Europahumlebøk
polski: Chmielograb europejski
rumantsch: Vertinet
русский: Хмелеграб обыкновенный
sardu: Aurri
slovenčina: Hrabovec hrabolistý
slovenščina: Črni gaber
српски / srpski: Црни граб
Türkçe: Gürgen yapraklı kayacık
vèneto: Càrpano mòro


Ostrya carpinifolia, the European hop-hornbeam, is a tree in the family Betulaceae. It is the only species of the genus Ostrya that is native to Europe.

The specific epithet carpinifolia means "hornbeam-leaved", from carpinus, the Latin word for "hornbeam".

Distribution
Fruits of Ostrya carpinifolia – MHNT

Ostrya carpinifolia is found in Lebanon, Italy, France, Austria, Slovenia, Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, southern Switzerland and Turkey. It is found in the medium elevations, in southern Italy and Sicily, in the South Apennine mixed montane forests ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Biome.
The wood of Ostrya carpinifolia
Description

Ostrya carpinifolia is a broadleaf deciduous tree, that can reach up to 24 metres (79 ft). It has a conical or irregular crown and a scaly, rough bark, and alternate and double-toothed birch-like leaves 3–10 cm long.

The flowers are produced in spring, with male catkins 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long and female catkins 2–5 cm (3⁄4–2 in) long. The fruit form in pendulous clusters 3–8 cm (1+1⁄4–3+1⁄4 in) long with 6–20 seeds; each seed is a small nut 2–4 mm (1⁄16–3⁄16 in) long, fully enclosed in a bladder-like involucre.
Uses

The wood is very heavy and hard, and was historically used to fashion plane soles.

Ostrya are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species.
External links

GRIN database: Ostrya carpinifolia
Scheda botanica: Ostrya carpinifolia
Ostrya carpinifolia - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN)

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