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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Malvales

Familia: Malvaceae
Subfamilia: Bombacoideae
Tribus: Bombaceae
Genus: Pachira
Species: P. amazonica – P. aquatica – P. aracamuniana – P. brevipes – P. calophylla – P. condorensis – P. coriacea – P. cowanii – P. cubensis – P. dolichocalyx – P. duckei – P. dugandeana – P. emarginata – P. endecaphylla – P. faroensis – P. flaviflora – P. fuscolepidota – P. glabra – P. gracilis – P. humilis – P. insignis – P. liesneri – P. macrocalyx – P. mawarinumae – P. minor – P. morae – P. moreirae – P. mutisiana – P. nervosa – P. nitida – P. nukakica – P. obovata – P. orinocensis – P. paraensis – P. patinoi – P. pseudofaroensis – P. pulchra – P. punga-schunkei – P. retusa – P. robynsii – P. rupicola – P. rurrenabaqueana – P. sessilis – P. sordida – P. speciosa – P. subandina – P. tepuiensis – P. tocantina – P. trinitensis – P. yapacanae
Name

Pachira Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2: 725. tt. 291, 292. (1775)

Type species: Pachira aquatica Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2: 726 (-729; tt. 291-292). (1775)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Bombacopsis Pittier
Carolinea L.f., Suppl. 51, 314. (1782)
Raussinia Neck.
Rhodognaphalopsis A.Robyns
Sophia L.

References

Aublet, J.B.C.F. 1775. Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane francoise 2: 725. tt. 291, 292.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Pachira in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Dec. 17. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Pachira. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Dec. 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Pachira. Published online. Accessed: Dec. 17 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Pachira. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Dec. 17.

Pachira is a genus of tropical trees distributed in Central and South America, Africa and India. They are classified in the subfamily Bombacoideae of the family Malvaceae. Previously the genus was assigned to Bombacaceae. [2][1] Prior to that the genus was found in the (now obsolete) Sterculiaceae.

Some 77 species have been identified.[3][4][5] They form small or large trees with digitate leaves, and the fruit an oval woody one-celled capsule opening by a number of divisions and containing many seeds. The genus name is derived from a language spoken in Guyana.[6]

History

Although first named Pachira by Jean Baptiste Aublet in 1775, Carl Linnaeus the Younger unaware of this separately is said to have called the genus Carolinea after Princess (or Marchioness) "Sophia Caroline of Baden" in 1782. [7] [8] [9] [10] The principle of precedence gives the authority to Pachira.

The Margrave of Baden, Karl Wilhelm (1709 – 1738) founded the Karlsruhe Palace (Karlsruher Schloß) in 1715. He had a considerable interest in Botany, particularly the exotic, and had large numbers of trees imported for the Palace Gardens (Schloßgarten). He was succeeded by his Grandson, Karl Friedrich (1738 - 1811) who married Princess Karoline Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt (1723 - 1783) in 1751. Karoline Luise was a noted botanist. She corresponded with Carl von Linné (Linnaeus), cultivated numerous plants in the palace gardens, had engravings of them made for a book and had them all classified according to Linnaeus' system. Linnaeus' son, Carl Linnaeus the younger, recognised her contributions by naming one of the trees, Pachira aquatica (German: Glückskastanie) Carolinea princeps after her. [11]
Commercial use

Timber, cordage and seeds for stuffing pillows and cushions. [12]
Selected species

Pachira aquatica Aubl. (syn. P. macrocarpa)
Pachira emarginata A. Rich.
Pachira fendleri Seem.
Pachira glabra Pasq.
Pachira insignis (Sw.) Savigny
Pachira quinata (Jacq.) W.S.Alverson[13]

Formerly placed here

Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A.Robyns (as P. cyathophora Casar.)[13]

References

"Genus: Pachira Aubl". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-06-05. Archived from the original on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
IABIN Archived 2012-07-01 at archive.today
Plant systematics: Pachira
Botanica: Pachira
Royal Botanical gardens Kew: Pachira insignis
Helmut Genaust (1983): Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen, 2. Auflage. Birkhäuser Verlag – ISBN 3-7643-1399-4
The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, Ogilvie, J. (ed.) 1883 Pachira p. 351.
Loudon's Hortus britannicus: A catalogue of all the plants indigenous, cultivated in, or introduced to Britain. London, 1830. I: 292
Loudon JC. An encyclopædia of plants. Longman London 1836, p. 592
Lindley and Moore. The treasury of botany, Longmans, London 1866. Pachira p. 833
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: Early Developments of Botany and Genetics in Karlsruhe 1715 - 1832
Brande and Cox (eds.) A dictionary of science, literature, & art. Longmans, London 1866 Pachira II: 761
"GRIN Species Records of Pachira". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-04-29.

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