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Paeonia lactiflora

Paeonia lactiflora (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Saxifragales

Familia: Paeoniaceae
Genus: Paeonia
Sectio: P. sect. Paeonia
Subsectio: P. subsect. Albiflorae
Species: Paeonia lactiflora
Name

Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 3: 286 (1776).

Type: Russia. Siberia: Chitinsky Prov., Nerchinsk, Bergabhangen, 1889, F. Karo 170 (Neotype designated by Hong (2010: 110): WU; isoneotypes: E, K).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Paeonia albiflora Pall., Fl. Ross. 1(2): 92, t. 84 (1788).
Typus: tab. 84 in Pallas, 1788.
Paeonia albiflora var. typica Huth, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 14: 265 (1891), nom. inval.
Paeonia albiflora f. nuda Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 13(6): 393 (1937).
Typus: Korea, Kanhoku, Mt Mozanrei, 9 June 1909, T. Nakai s.n. (Holotype TI).
Paeonia lactiflora f. nuda (Nakai) Kitag., Neolin. Fl. Manshur. 302 (1979).
Paeonia albiflora f. pilifera Schipcz., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada R.S.F.S.R. 2(11–12): 44 (1921).
Paeonia albiflora f. pilosella Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 13(6): 393 (1937).
Typus: non design.
Typus: Korea, Keiki, Koryo, 6 May 1935, Tei s.n. (Holotype: TI).
Paeonia lactiflora f. pilosella (Nakai) Kitag., Neolin. Fl. Manshur. 303 (1979).
Paeonia albiflora var. fragrans Sabine, Trans. Hort. Soc. 2: 278, t. 18 (1816).
Typus: tab. 18 in Sabine, 1817.
Paeonia fragrans (Sabine) Redouté, Choix Plus Belles Fleurs: t. 22 (1827).
Paeonia albiflora f. hirta Regel, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 7, 4(4): 13 (1861).
Typus: Russia. Primorsky Prov.: Khaitzo, by Ussuri River, 1859, R.K. Maak s.n. (Neotype designated by Hong (2010: 110): LE).
Paeonia lactiflora var. hirta (Regel) Y.C.Chu, Fl. Pl. Herb. Chin. Bor.-Or. 2: 77 (1959).
Paeonia albiflora var. hortensis Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 5 (9): 34 (1928).
Paeonia albiflora var. humei Sabine, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 2: 279 (1817).
Typus: non design.
Paeonia humei (Sabine) Bailly, Fl. Pleine Terre, ed. 3: 892 (1870).
Paeonia albiflora var. pottsii D.Don in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 7: t. 351 (1836).
Paeonia albiflora var. pubescens Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 46: 605 (1932).
Paeonia albiflora var. purpurea Korsh., Trudy Glavn. Bot. Sada 12: 302 (1892).
Typus: non design.
Paeonia albiflora var. rosea Hook., Bot. Mag. 56: t. 2888 (1829).
Paeonia albiflora var. spontanea Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 5(9): 33 (1928).
Typus: non design.
Paeonia albiflora var. trichocarpa Bunge, Enum. Pl. China Bor.: 3 (1834).
Type: China, Inner Mongolia [Nei Mongol], Mt Huanggangliang, edges of forest, July 2004, D.Y. Hong, K.Y. Pan et al. H04040a (Neotype designated by Hong (2010:110): PE).
Paeonia lactiflora f. trichocarpa (Bunge) C.Y.Cheng, Acta Pharm. Sin. 3(1): 98 (1955).
Paeonia lactiflora var. trichocarpa (Bunge) Stern, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 68: 129 (1943).
Paeonia albiflora var. whitleyi Sabine, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 2: 277 (1817).
Paeonia whitleyi (Sabine) Anon., Garden (London, 1871–1927) 36: 8 (1889).
Paeonia chinensis Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. 3, 892 (1870), nom. illeg. non Oken (1841).
Paeonia edulis Salisb., Parad. Lond. 2: t. 78 (1805).
Typus: Salisbury’s tab. cited.
Paeonia albiflora var. edulis (Salisb.) Pursh in J. Donn, Hort. Cantabr., ed. 8: 177 (1815).
Paeonia edulis var. reevesiana Paxton, Paxton's Mag. Bot. 1: 197 (1834).
Typus: Paxton’s tab. cited.
Paeonia reevesiana (Paxton) Loudon, Suppl. Hort. Brit.: 601 (1850).
Paeonia edulis var. sinensis Sims, Bot. Mag. 42: t. 1768 (1815).
Typus: Sims' tab. cited.
Paeonia lactea Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 3: 321 (1776), nom. nud..
Paeonia lactiflora var. villosa M.S.Yan & K.Sun, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 12(4): 325 (1992).
Typus: China, Gansu: Tianshui, Dongcha, 9 July 1983, Z. Ma 433 (Holotype: NWNU).
Paeonia lobata Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 2: 553 (1773), nom. nud.
Paeonia makoya Marnock in J.C. Loudon, Suppl. Hort. Brit.: 601 (1850).
Paeonia officinalis Thunb., Fl. Jap.: 230. 1784, nom. illeg. non L. (1753).
Paeonia officinalis Lour., Fl. Cochin. 1: 343 (1790), nom. illeg. non L. (1753).
Paeonia sinensis Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 247 (1841), nom. inval., pro syn.
Paeonia yui W.P.Fang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 321 (1958).
Typus: Yunnan, Weixi County, “Wei-hsi Hsien, Tao-jao, alt. 3,200 m, cultivated herb”, 1 May 1937, T.T. Yu 8223 (Holotype KUN; isotype PE).

Hybrids

Paeonia × smouthii Smouth

Notes

Paeonia lobata Desf. ex DC. (1817) = Paeonia peregrina
Paeonia lobata Rchb. (1839) = Paeonia officinalis subsp. villosa

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Middle Europe
Czechoslovakia (introduced).
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Siberia
Chita.
Regional: Russian Far East
Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye.
Regional: China
Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol, Ningxia), Manchuria (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning), China North-Central (Gansu, Hebei, Shaanxi, Shanxi).
Regional: Mongolia
Mongolia
Regional: Eastern Asia
Korea (introduced).
Continental: Northern America (introduced)
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
New York, Vermont.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Pallas, P.S. 1776. Reise durch Verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs. St. Petersburg 3: 286.

Additional references

Hong, D.Y., Pan, K.Y. & Turland, N.J. 2001. Paeoniaceae. Pp. 127–132 in Wu, Zh.Y. , Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.), Flora of China. Volume 6: Caryophyllaceae through Lardizabalaceae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, ISBN 1-930723-05-9. efloras PDF Reference page.

Links

Burkhardt, C. 2000–onwards. Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia. 2010 Sept 10 [1].
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Paeonia lactiflora in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Півоня малочнакветкавая
čeština: pivoňka čínská
English: Chinese Peony
suomi: Kiinanpioni
français: Pivoine de Chine
日本語: シャクヤク
slovenčina: pivonka čínska
svenska: Luktpion
Türkçe: Kokulu Çin şakayığı
中文: 芍药

Paeonia lactiflora (Chinese peony, Chinese herbaceous peony, or common garden peony) is a species of herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Paeoniaceae, native to central and eastern Asia from eastern Tibet across northern China to eastern Siberia.

Description

It is 50–70 cm (20–28 in) tall and broad, with 9-lobed leaves 20–40 cm (8–16 in) long.

The flower buds appear in late spring (May in the Northern Hemisphere). They are large and round, opening into fragrant, cup- or bowl-shaped flowers 8–16 cm (3–6 in) in diameter, with 5–10 white, pink, or crimson petals and yellow stamens.[1] The plant attracts butterflies.[2] Its habitats include dry open stony slopes, riverbanks and sparse woodland edges.[3]
Background

Paeonia lactiflora was known as the white peony (P. albiflora) when first introduced into Europe.[4] It was brought to England in the mid-18th century, and is the parent of most modern varieties. It has been grown as an ornamental in China since the 7th century.[2]

The Latin specific epithet lactiflora means “with milk white flowers”.[5]

In China, P. lactiflora is likened to "the Minister of Flowers" (花相), while Paeonia × suffruticosa is known as "the King of Flowers" (花王).[6]
Cultivars
cv. ’Sarah Bernhardt’

There are several hundred selected cultivars in a range of colours, sizes and forms; many have double flowers, with the stamens modified into additional petals.[7] There are many colors now available, from pure milk white, to pink, rose, and near red, along with single to fully double forms. They are prolific bloomers, and have become the main source of peonies for the cut flower business.[4]

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:[8]

'Bowl of Beauty'[9] (double, pink & cream)
'Coral Charm'[10] (salmon pink)
'Duchesse de Nemours'[11] (double white)
’Felix Crousse’[12] (double deep pink)
’Festiva maxima’[13] (double white)
'Laura Dessert'[14] (double white)
'Miss America'[15]
’Monsieur Jules Elie’[16] (double pink)
'Sarah Bernhardt'[17] (double pink)
'Whitleyi Major'[18] (single white, prominent stamens)

'Gold Rush'
Chemistry

The leaves of many cultivars are high in oleanolic and ursolic acid.[19]
Phenolic compounds

Cis-epsilon-viniferin, trans-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, trans-epsilon-viniferin, gnetin H, and suffruticosol A, B[20] and paeoniflorin esters[21] can be found in P. lactiflora.

Petals color is dependent on a UDP-glucose: Flavonoid 5-O-glucosyltransferase expressing anthocyanins such as peonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside-5-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-5-O-galactoside and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside-5-O-galactoside.[22]
In art and culture
Peonies 1880 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Paeonia lactiflora became a popular still life subject for Impressionist artists in the late 19th century.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir featured Peonies in multiple paintings from the 1870s through the 1890s.[23] The Independent wrote of his fondness for the flower that: "They had been introduced into the horticultural world of Paris in the 1860s, so there was still something of the exotic about them, and Renoir paints them rather solemnly and majestically."[24]
Vincent van Gogh painted "Vase with Peonies", "Bowl with Peonies and Roses"[25] and "Vase with cornflowers and poppies, peonies and chrysanthemums", all in 1886.[26]
Claude Monet painted "Vase of Peonies" in 1882.[27]
Édouard Manet cultivated peonies in his garden and painted them frequently. The Impressionist artist Frédéric Bazille painted "Young Woman with Peonies" in 1870 as a tribute to his friend Manet, knowing his fondness for the flower.[28]

References

RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
"Paeonia lactiflora 'Sarah Bernhardt' - Plant Finder". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 2021-12-16.
"Paeonia lactiflora Chinese Peony, Peony PFAF Plant Database". pfaf.org. Retrieved 2021-12-16.
Halda, Josef J.; Waddick, James W. (2004). The Genus Paeonia. Timber Press. pp. 196–205. ISBN 978-0-88192-612-5.
Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.
""花相"字的解释 | 汉典". www.zdic.net (in Chinese (China)). Retrieved 2020-01-12.
Loewer, H. Peter (1999). Fragrant Gardens. Houghton Mifflin Gardening. pp. 48. ISBN 978-0-395-88492-8. "Peony common garden."
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 71. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Paeonia lactiflora 'Bowl of Beauty'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"Paeonia lactiflora 'Coral Charm'". RHS. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Paeonia lactiflora 'Duchesse de Nemours'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Paeonia lactiflora 'Felix Crousse'". Retrieved 14 April 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Paeonia lactiflora 'Festiva maxima'". Retrieved 14 April 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Paeonia lactiflora 'Laura Dessert'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"Paeonia lactiflora 'Miss America'". RHS. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Paeonia lactiflora 'Monsieur Jules Elie'". Retrieved 14 April 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Paeonia lactiflora 'Sarah Bernhardt'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Paeonia lactiflora 'Whitleyi Major'". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
Zhou C, Zhang Y, Sheng Y, Zhao D, Lv S, Hu Y, Tao J.,"Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids." Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(1):655-67
Kim, H. J.; Chang, E. J.; Cho, S. H.; Chung, S. K.; Park, H. D.; Choi, S. W. (2002). "Antioxidative activity of resveratrol and its derivatives isolated from seeds of Paeonia lactiflora". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 66 (9): 1990–1993. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.1990. PMID 12400706. S2CID 24367582.
Yan, D.; Saito, K.; Ohmi, Y.; Fujie, N.; Ohtsuka, K. (2004). "Paeoniflorin, a novel heat shock protein–inducing compound". Cell Stress & Chaperones. 9 (4): 378–89. doi:10.1379/CSC-51R.1. PMC 1065277. PMID 15633296.
Isolation of a UDP-glucose: Flavonoid 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene and expression analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.). Da Qiu Zhao, Chen Xia Han, Jin Tao Ge and Jun Tao, Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 15 November 2012, Volume 15, Number 6, doi:10.2225/vol15-issue6-fulltext-7
"'Peonies' Pierre-Auguste Renoir". clarkart.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
Michael Glover (2013-08-16). "Great works: Onions (1881) by Pierre Auguste-Renoir". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-24. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
"Roses and Peonies, June 1886". krollermuller.nl. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
"Vase with Peonies by Vincent van Gogh". vangoghgallery.com. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
"Vase of Peonies, 1992 - Claude Monet". wikiart.com. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
"Manet and His Influence". National Gallery of Art. p. 8. Retrieved 2018-04-17.

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