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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: Paniceae
Subtribus: Panicinae
Genus: Panicum
Species: P. acrotrichum – P. aequinerve – P. afzelii – P. alatum – P. aldabrense – P. altum – P. amarum – P. ambositrense – P. amoenum – P. anabaptistum – P. andringitrense – P. ankarense – P. antidotale – P. aquarum – P. aquaticum – P. arbusculum – P. arcurameum – P. assumptionis – P. atrosanguineum – P. australiense – P. aztecanum – P. bambusiusculum – P. bartlettii – P. bartowense – P. bathiei – P. bechuanense – P. beecheyi – P. bergii – P. bisulcatum – P. boivinianum – P. bombycinum – P. brevifolium – P. buncei – P. × – P. callosum – P. calocarpum – P. calvum – P. campestre – P. capillare – P. capillarioides – P. capuronii – P. carneovaginatum – P. caudiglume – P. cayennense – P. cervicatum – P. chambeshii – P. chaseae – P. chillagoanum – P. chionachne – P. chloroleucum – P. cinctum – P. coloratum – P. comorense – P. complanatum – P. congoense – P. cristatellum – P. crystallinum – P. cupressifolium – P. curviflorum – P. danguyi – P. deciduum – P. decolorans – P. decompositum – P. delicatulum – P. deschampsioides – P. deustum – P. dewinteri – P. dichotomiflorum – P. diffusum – P. dolichoadenotrichum – P. dorsense – P. dregeanum – P. effusum – P. eickii – P. elegantissimum – P. ephemeroides – P. ephemerum – P. exiguum – P. fasciculiforme – P. fauriei – P. fischeri – P. flacourtii – P. flexile – P. fluviicola – P. foliolosum – P. fontanale – P. furvum – P. gardneri – P. genuflexum – P. ghiesbreghtii – P. gilvum – P. glabripes – P. glandulopaniculatum – P. gouinii – P. graciliflorum – P. graniflorum – P. griffonii – P. gymnocarpon – P. haenkeanum – P. hallii – P. hanningtonii – P. haplocaulos – P. havardii – P. hayatae – P. hemitomon – P. hillmanii – P. hippothrix – P. hirsutum – P. hirticaule – P. hirtum – P. hispidifolium – P. hochstetteri – P. homblei – P. humbertii – P. humidorum – P. humile – P. hygrocharis – P. ibitense – P. impeditum – P. inaequilatum – P. incisum – P. incomtum – P. inconspicuum – P. issongense – P. johnii – P. joshuae – P. kalaharense – P. kasumense – P. khasianum – P. konaense – P. lachnophyllum – P. lacustre – P. laetum – P. laevinode – P. lanipes – P. larcomianum – P. laticomum – P. latzii – P. lepidulum – P. leprosulum – P. leptolomoides – P. ligulare – P. lineale – P. linoides – P. longiloreum – P. longissimum – P. longivaginatum – P. luridum – P. luzonense – P. lycopodioides – P. madipirense – P. magnispicula – P. majusculum – P. malacotrichum – P. manongarivense – P. mapalense – P. massaiense – P. merkeri – P. miliaceum – P. millegrana – P. mindanaense – P. mitchellii – P. mitopus – P. mlahiense – P. mohavense – P. monticola – P. mucronulatum – P. muelleri – P. mystasipum – P. neobathiei – P. neoperrieri – P. nephelophilum – P. nigerense – P. niihauense – P. notatum – P. novemnerve – P. nudiflorum – P. nymphoides – P. obseptum – P. oligoadenotrichum – P. olyroides – P. paianum – P. palackyanum – P. palauense – P. paludosum – P. pampinosum – P. pansum – P. parapaurochaetium – P. parcum – P. pauciflorum – P. paucinode – P. pearsonii – P. pedersenii – P. peladoense – P. pellitum – P. perangustatum – P. perrieri – P. philadelphicum – P. phippsii – P. phoiniclados – P. phragmitoides – P. pilgeri – P. pilgerianum – P. pinifolium – P. piptopilum – P. pleianthum – P. plenum – P. poioides – P. porphyrrhizos – P. pseudoracemosum – P. pusillum – P. pygmaeum – P. quadriglume – P. queenslandicum – P. racemosum – P. ramosius – P. repens – P. rigidum – P. robynsii – P. rudgei – P. rupestre – P. ruspolii – P. sancta-luciense – P. sarmentosum – P. schinzii – P. sellowii – P. seminudum – P. shinyangense – P. silvestre – P. simile – P. simulans – P. smithii – P. socotranum – P. sparsicomum – P. spergulifolium – P. spongiosum – P. stapfianum – P. stevensianum – P. stramineum – P. subalbidum – P. subflabellatum – P. subhystrix – P. sublaetum – P. sublaeve – P. subtilissimum – P. sumatrense – P. taiwanense – P. tamaulipense – P. tenuifolium – P. torridum – P. trachyrhachis – P. trichanthum – P. trichocladum – P. trichoides – P. tricholaenoides – P. trichonode – P. turgidum – P. urvilleanum – P. vaseyanum – P. vatovae – P. venezuelae – P. venosum – P. virgatum – P. voeltzkowii – P. vohitrense – P. vollesenii – P. volutans – P. wiehei – P. xerophilum – P. zambesiense
Name

Panicum L., Sp. Pl.: 55 (1753)

Type species: Panicum miliaceum L., Sp. Pl.: 58 (1753)


Synonyms

Heterotypic
Monachne P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 49 (1812).
Eatonia Raf., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 104 (1819).
Talasium Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4(2): 22 (1827).
Eriolytrum Desv. ex Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 219 (1830).
Phanopyrum (Raf.) Nash in J.K.Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 104 (1903).
Chasea Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 2: 64 (1911).
Polyneura Peter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 40(1 Anh.): 203 (1930), nom. illeg. non Kylin (1924).
Psilochloa Launert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 8: 156 (1970).
Ocellochloa × null Zuloaga & Morrone, Syst. Bot. 34: 688 (2009)
Arthragrostis Lazarides, Nuytsia 5: 285 (1984 publ. 1985)
Yakirra Lazarides & R.D.Webster, Brunonia 7: 292 (1985)
Aconisia J.R.Grande, Phytoneuron 2014-22: 2 (2014)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 55.
Sánchez-Ken, G.J. & Clark, L.G. 2010. Phylogeny and a new tribal classification of the Panicoideeae s.l. (Poaceae) based upon plastid and nuclear sequence data and structural data. American Journal of Botany 97(10): 1732–1748.
Morrone, O., Aagesen, L., Scataglini, L.M., Salariato, D.L., Denham, S.S., Chemisquy, M.A., Sedea, S.M., Giussani, L.A., Kellogg, E.A. & Zuloaga, F.O. 2012. Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification. Cladistics 28(4): 333-356 DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.x Paywall ResearchGate Open access. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Panicum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 6. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Panicum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 6.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Panicum. Published online. Accessed: 6 Nov. 2013.
Zuloaga, F.O., Salariato, D.L. & Scataglini, A. 2018. Molecular phylogeny of Panicum s.str. (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae) and insights into its biogeography and evolution. PLoS ONE 13(2), p.e0191529. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191529 Open access Reference page.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Проса
čeština: Proso
English: Switch Grasses, Buffalo Grass
Esperanto: Panico
eesti: Hirss
suomi: Hirssit
magyar: Köles


Panicum (panicgrass)[2] is a large genus of about 450 species of grasses native throughout the tropical regions of the world, with a few species extending into the northern temperate zone. They are often large, annual or perennial grasses, growing to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in–9 ft 10 in) tall.[3][4]

The flowers are produced in a well-developed panicle often up to 60 cm (24 in) in length with numerous seeds, which are 1–6 mm (0.039–0.236 in) long and 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) broad. The fruits are developed from a two-flowered spikelet. Only the upper floret of each spikelet is fertile; the lower floret is sterile or staminate. Both glumes are present and well developed.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Australia has 29 native and 9 introduced species of Panicum.[11][12][13]

Well-known Panicum species include Panicum miliaceum (proso millet) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass).

Selected species
See also: List of Panicum species

Panicum abscissum Swallen (endemic to Florida)
Panicum amarum Elliott – bitter panicum (North America)
Panicum anceps Michx. – beaked panicum (United States)
Panicum antidotale Retz. – blue panicum (South Asia, Himalayas)
Panicum capillare L. – witchgrass, tumbleweed[14] (North America)
Panicum coloratum L. – kleingrass, coolah grass, Bambatsi panic (Africa)
Panicum decompositum R.Br. – native millet (Australia)
Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. – fall panicgrass (North America)
Panicum effusum R.Br. – hairy panic (Australia, New Guinea)
Panicum fauriei Hitchc. – Faurie's panicgrass (endemic to Hawai'i)
Panicum flexile (Gattinger) Scribn. – wiry panicgrass (eastern North America)
Panicum hallii Vasey – Hall's panicgrass (North America)
Panicum havardii Vasey – Havard's panicgrass (North America)
Panicum hemitomon Schult. – maidencane (Americas)
Panicum hillmanii Chase – Hillmann's panicgrass (North America)
Panicum hirticaule J.Presl – Mexican panicgrass (Americas)
Panicum lycopodioides Bory ex Nees – false club-moss panic grass (Réunion)
Panicum maximum Jacq. – Guinea grass, buffalo grass (Africa, Palestine, Yemen)
Panicum miliaceum L. – proso millet, common millet (domesticated)
Panicum niihauense H.St.John – lau 'ehu (endemic to Hawai'i)
Panicum obtusum Kunth – vine mesquite grass (North America) (possible synonym of Hopia obtusa)
Panicum pygmaeum R.Br. – Australian native dwarf panicum, rainforest panicum
Panicum repens L. – torpedo grass (widely introduced)
Panicum rigidum Balf.f. (endemic to Socotra)
Panicum simile Domin – two colour panic (Australia)
Panicum socotranum Cope (endemic to Socotra)
Panicum sumatrense Roth – little millet (Asia)
Panicum turgidum Forssk. – afezu (Africa, Asia)
Panicum urvilleanum Kunth – desert panicgrass (North America)
Panicum virgatum L. – switchgrass (North America)

Formerly classified in this genus, according to The Plant List:

Acostia gracilis, formerly named Panicum acostia R.D.Webster
Echinochloa colona – jungle rice, formerly named Panicum colonum L.
Echinochloa crus-galli – barnyard grass, formerly named Panicum crus-galli L.
Urochloa panicoides – annual signal grass, formerly named Panicum helopus Trin.

Gallery

Panicum antidotale

Panicum capillare

Panicum lycopodioides

Panicum maximum

Proso millet

Panicum phragmitoides

Panicum repens

Panicum torridum

Panicum xerophyllum

Panicum trichoides, isotype herbarium sheet

References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
"Panicum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Freckmann, R. W. & M. G. Lelong. 2002. Nomenclatural changes and innovations in Panicum and Dichanthelium (Poaceae: Paniceae). Sida 20(1): 161–174
Valdes, B. & H. Scholz. 2006. "The Euro+Med treatment of Gramineae - a generic synopsis and some new names". Willdenowia 36(2): 657–669
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 504 黍属 shu shu Panicum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753.
Flora of Pakistan
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Panicum includes photos and distribution maps of several species
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
Valdés-Reyna, J., F. O. Zuloaga, O. Morrone & L. Aragón Melchor. 2009. "El género Panicum (Poaceae: Panicoideae) en el noreste de México". Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México 84: 59–82.
Morrone, O., A. M. Antón & F. O. Zuloaga. 1995. "Axonopus". Flora Fanerogámica Argentina. 19(1): 11–16
Grasses of the Tweed Valley of NSW: An introductory field guide to locally common grasses: native and introduced, compiled by Penny Watsford, Nullum Publications, 2004 ISBN 0-9756823-0-X)
Ausgrass2, Grasses of Australia
"Atlas of Living Australia". Archived from the original on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 2015-02-02.
*Britton, Nathaniel; Brown, Addison (1896). An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume I, Ophioglossaceae to Aizoaceae. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 612. page 123

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