Plants, Fine Art Prints

- Art Gallery -

Taxonavigation: Liliales
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Melanthiaceae
Tribus: Parideae

Genus: Paris
Species: P. axialis – P. bashanensis – P. birmanica – P. caobangensis – P. caojianensis – P. cronquistii – P. daliensis – P. delavayi – P. dulongensis – P. dunniana – P. fargesii – P. forrestii – P. guizhouensis – P. incompleta – P. japonica – P. lihengiana – P. luquanensis – P. mairei – P. marmorata – P. nitida – P. polyandra – P. polyphylla – P. qiliangiana – P. quadrifolia – P. rugosa – P. stigmatosa – P. tengchongensis – P. tetraphylla – P. thibetica – P. undulata – P. vaniotii – P. variabilis – P. verticillata – P. vietnamensis

Paris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 367. 1753; Gen. Pl., ed 5: 172. 1754.

Type species: Paris quadrifolia L. (by monotypy)


Alopicarpus Neck., Elem. Bot. 2: 369. 1790, opus utiq. oppr.
Cartalinia Szov. ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5: 119. 1850.
Daiswa Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 18. 1838.
Demidovia Hoffm., Hort. Mosq. 2. 1808, nom. illeg. non Pall. (1781).
Euthyra Salisb., Gen. Pl. 61. 1866.
Kinugasa Tatew. & Suto, Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 34. 1935.

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 367. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 172. Reference page.

Additional references

Ji, Y.H., Fritsch, P.W., Li, H., Xiao, T. & Zhou, Z.K. 2006. Phylogeny and Classification of Paris (Melanthiaceae) Inferred from DNA Sequence Data. Annals of Botany 98(1): 245–256. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcl095Open access Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Paris in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 18. Reference page.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Paris in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2020 May 18.

Vernacular names
башҡортса: Ҡарға күҙе
kaszëbsczi: Mòtelnik
čeština: vraní oko
dansk: Firblad
Deutsch: Einbeeren
suomi: Sudenmarjat
hornjoserbsce: Štwórica
հայերեն: Ագռավաչք
日本語: ツクバネソウ属
қазақша: Қарғакөз
lietuvių: Vilkauogė
эрзянь: Варакань сельме
polski: Czworolist
русский: Вороний глаз
slovenčina: vranovec, vranie oko
svenska: Ormbärssläktet
Tiếng Việt: Chi Trọng lâu
中文: 重楼属

Paris is a genus of flowering plants described by Linnaeus in 1753.[2][3] It is widespread across Europe and Asia, with a center of diversity in China.[1][4][5][6]

It consists of less than two dozen herbaceous plants: the best known species is Paris quadrifolia. Some Paris species are used in traditional Chinese medicine for their analgesic and anticoagulant properties, most notably as an ingredient of Yunnan Baiyao. Intense ethnopharmaceutical interest has significantly reduced their numbers.[7]

These plants are closely related to Trillium, with the distinction traditionally being that Trillium contains species which have trimerous (three-petaled) flowers, and Paris contains species which have 4- to 11-merous flowers.[8] A recent analysis places the genera Daiswa and Kinugasa in Paris, though the actual circumscription of the genus is debated.[9]

From Latin herba Paris (Herba Paris), Paris herba, from Latin herba and Latin par (“equal”), in reference to the regularity of its leaves, petals, etc. It is neither related to the city Paris nor the Paris of Greek mythology.

The genus consists of the following species:[1]

Paris axialis – Sichuan, Yunnan
Paris bashanensis – Sichuan, Hubei
Paris caobangensis – Vietnam
Paris cronquistii – Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
Paris daliensis – Yunnan, Guizhou
Paris delavayi – Vietnam, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan
Paris dulongensis – Yunnan
Paris dunniana – Yunnan, Guizhou, Hainan
Paris fargesii – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bhutan, E Himalayas, N Myanmar, N Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan
Paris forrestii – Tibet, Myanmar, Yunnan
Paris guizhouensis – Guizhou
Paris incompleta – Turkey, N + S Caucasus
Paris japonica – Honshu
Paris luquanensis – Yunnan
Paris mairei – Guizhou, W Sichuan, N Yunnan
Paris marmorata – Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Assam
Paris polyandra – Sichuan
Paris polyphylla – S China, E Himalayas, N Indochina
Paris quadrifolia – Europe + Asia from Spain + Iceland to Heilongjiang
Paris rugosa – Yunnan
Paris stigmatosa – Yunnan
Paris tetraphylla – Japan
Paris thibetica – N Myanmar, Assam, Bhutan, Gansu, Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan
Paris undulata – Sichuan
Paris vaniotii – Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, N Myanmar
Paris verticillata – Siberia, Russian Far East, China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan
Paris vietnamensis – Yunnan, Guangxi, Vietnam


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 367
Tropicos, Paris L.
Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Altervista Flora Italiana, Uva di volpe, Paris quadrifolia L. includes photos plus European distribution map
Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 88 重楼属 chong lou shu Paris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 367. 1753.
Chun-Lin Long; Heng Li; Zhiqin Ouyang; Xiangyun Yang; Qin Li & Bruce Trangmar (2002). "Strategies for agrobiodiversity conservation and promotion: a case from Yunnan, China". Biodiversity and Conservation. 11: 1146–1154. doi:10.1023/a:1023085922265.
Susan B. Farmer & Edward E. Schilling (2002). "Phylogenetic analyses of Trilliaceae based on morphological and molecular data". Systematic Botany. 27 (4): 674–692. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-27.4.674.
Yunheng Ji; Peter W. Fritsch; Heng Li; Tiaojiang Xiao & Zhekun Zhou (2006). "Phylogeny and classification of Paris (Melanthiaceae) inferred from DNA sequence data". Annals of Botany. 98 (1): 245–256. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl095. PMC 2803534. PMID 16704998.

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World