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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Cactaceae
Subfamilia: Cactoideae
Tribus: Phyllocacteae
Subtribus: Echinocereinae
Genus: Peniocereus
Subgenera: P. subg. Cullmannia – P. subg. Peniocereus
Species: P. canoensis – P. greggii – P. johnstonii – P. lazaro-cardenasii – P. marianus – P. striatus – P. viperinus – P. zopilotensis

Name

Peniocereus (A.Berger) Britton & Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 428. 1909.
Type species: Peniocereus greggii (Engelm.) Britton & Rose

Synonyms

Basionym
Cereus subsect. Peniocereus A.Berger, Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 16: 77. 1905.

Homotypic
Cereus subg. Peniocereus (A.Berger) A.Berger, Kakteen 6: 126. 1929.

Heterotypic
Cullmannia Distef., Kakteen And. Sukk. 7 : 8. 1956.
Type species: Cullmannia viperina (F.A.C.Weber) Distefano
Neoevansia W.T.Marshall in W.T.Marshall & Bock, Cactaceae 84. 1941.
Type species: Neoevansia diguetii (F.A.C.Weber) W.T.Marshall

References

Anderson, E.F. (2001) The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 776 p.
Arias, S. & al. (2005) Phylogenetic relationships in Peniocereus (Cactaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data. Journal of Plant Research 118 (5): 317–328. (reinstate the genus Nyctocereus)
Tropicos

Peniocereus is a genus of vining cacti, comprising about 18 species, found from the southwestern United States and Mexico. They have a large underground tuber, thin and inconspicuous stems. Its name comes from the prefix penio- (from the Latin penis, meaning ‘tail’) and Cereus, the large genus from which it was split.[1]

Known as the desert night-blooming cereus, it also shares its common names of "night-blooming cereus" and "queen of the night" with many other similar cacti.

Taxonomy

Peniocereus was first described in 1905 by Alwin Berger as a subgenus of Cereus with a single species, Cereus greggii. This taxon was elevated to the genus level as Peniocereus greggii by Britton and Rose in 1909. Later in 1974 an infrageneric classification was constructed based on morphological features that split Peniocereus into two subgenera: Peniocereus and Pseudoacanthocereus. In 2005 a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus supported this split and showed that Peniocereus is not monophyletic.[2]
Species

Species include:[3]
Subgenus Peniocereus

Molecular phylogeny supported the position of this subgenus within Echinocereeae.[2]

Peniocereus greggii – desert nightblooming cereus
Peniocereus johnstonii
Peniocereus lazaro-cardenasii
Peniocereus viperinus
Peniocereus zopilotensis
Peniocereus marianus
Peniocereus striatus – gearstem cactus

Nyctocereus

The 2005 molecular study showed that P. serpentinus is in Echinocereeae along with subgenus Peniocereus, but suggests resurrecting the monotopic Nyctocereus as it is sister to Bergerocactus.[2]

Peniocereus serpentinus

Subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus

Molecular phylogeny and morphological evidence suggests this subgenus is more closely related to Acanthocereus.[2]

Peniocereus hirschtianus
Peniocereus maculatus
Peniocereus oaxacensis
Peniocereus cuixmalensis
Peniocereus fosterianus
Peniocereus castellae
Peniocereus macdougallii
Peniocereus rosei
Peniocereus tepalcatepecanus

References

A. Michael Powell; James F. Weedin (2004). Cacti of the Trans-Pecos & Adjacent Areas. Texas Tech University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-89672-531-7.
Vázquez-Sánchez, Monserrat (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships in Peniocereus (Cactaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data". Journal of Plant Research. 118 (5): 317–328. doi:10.1007/s10265-005-0225-3. PMID 16143879. S2CID 5617876.
"The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 20 January 2014.

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