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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Phaseoleae
Subtribus: Phaseolinae
Genus: Phaseolus
Sectiones: P. sect. Acutifolii – P. sect. Bracteati – P. sect. Brevilegumeni – P. sect. Chiapasana – P. sect. Coccinei – P. sect. Coriacei – P. sect. Digitati – P. sect. Falcati – P. sect. Minkelersia – P. sect. Paniculati – P. sect. Pedicellati – P. sect. Phaseolus – P. sect. Revoluti – P. sect. Rugosi – P. sect. Xanthotricha – Unassigned Phaseolus
Species: P. acinaciformis – P. acutifolius – P. albescens – P. albiflorus – P. albinervis – P. albiviolaceus – P. altimontanus – P. amabilis – P. amblyosepalus – P. angucianae – P. angustissimus – P. anisophyllus – P. atomifer – P. augusti – P. campanulatus – P. carterae – P. chiapasanus – P. coccineus – P. costaricensis – P. dasycarpus – P. debouckii – P. × dumosus – P. esperanzae – P. esquincensis – P. filiformis – P. glabellus – P. gladiolatus – P. hintonii – P. hygrophilus – P. jaliscanus – P. juquilensis – P. leptophyllus – P. leptostachyus – P. lignosus – P. longiplacentifer – P. lunatus – P. macrolepis – P. maculatifolius – P. maculatus – P. macvaughii – P. magnilobatus – P. marechalii – P. massaiensis – P. micranthus – P. microcarpus – P. mollis – P. neglectus – P. nelsonii – P. nodosus – P. novoleonensis – P. oaxacanus – P. oligospermus – P. ovatifolius – P. pachycarpus – P. pachyrrhizoides – P. parvifolius – P. parvulus – P. pauciflorus – P. pedicellatus – P. perplexus – P. persistentus – P. plagiocylix – P. polymorphus – P. polystachios – P. pulchellus – P. pyramidalis – P. reptans – P. reticulatus – P. rimbachii – P. rosei – P. rotundatus – P. salicifolius – P. scabrellus – P. scrobiculatifolius – P. sinuatus – P. sonorensis – P. talamancensis – P. tenellus – P. teulensis – P. texensis – P. trifidus – P. tuerckheimii – P. venosus – P. viridis – P. vulcanicus – P. vulgaris – P. xanthotrichus – P. xolocotzii – P. zimapanensis
Source(s) of checklist:
Name

Phaseolus L. (1753)

Type species: Phaseolus vulgaris L. LT designated by N. L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2: 422 (1913)

Synonyms

Alepidocalyx Piper, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22: 672 (1926)
Cadelium Medik., Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Ges. 2: (1787) 352
Caracalla Tod., Ind. Sem. Hort. Panorm. (1861) 32
Lipusa Alef., Landw. Fl. 26 (1866)
Minkelersia Mart. & Galeotti, Bull. Acad. Brux. 10: II. 200 (1843)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 723. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Phaseolus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 20. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Phaseolus. Published online. Accessed: May 20 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Phaseolus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 20 May 2021.
Hassler, M. 2021. Phaseolus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 20. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Phaseolus. Accessed: 20 May 2021.

Vernacular names
Akan: Aduwa
беларуская: Фасоля
български: фасул
čeština: Fazol
eʋegbe: Ayi
English: Wild bean
suomi: Pavut
slovenčina: Fazuľa

Phaseolus (bean, wild bean)[1] is a genus of herbaceous to woody annual and perennial vines in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.[2][3]

It is one of the most economically important legume genera. Five of the species have been domesticated since pre-Columbian times for their beans: P. acutifolius (tepary bean), P. coccineus (runner bean), P. dumosus (year bean), P. lunatus (lima bean), and P. vulgaris (common bean).[4][5] Most prominent among these is the common bean, P. vulgaris, which today is cultivated worldwide in tropical, semitropical, and temperate climates.

Ecology

Phaseolus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including common swift, garden dart, ghost moth Hypercompe albicornis, H. icasia and the nutmeg.
Etymology

The generic name Phaseolus was introduced by Linnaeus in 1753,[6] from the Latin phaseolus, a diminutive of phasēlus, in turn borrowed from Greek φάσηλος 'cowpea', of unknown origin.[7][8] The Latin word phaseolus is often incorrectly glossed as 'kidney bean', a New World crop.[7]
Taxonomy

Previous classifications placed a number of other well-known legume species in this genus, but they were subsequently reassigned to the genus Vigna, sometimes necessitating a change of species name. For example, older literature refers to the mung bean as Phaseolus aureus, whereas more modern sources classify it as Vigna radiata. Similarly, the snail bean Vigna caracalla was discovered in 1753 and in 1970 moved from Phaseolus to Vigna. The modern understanding of Phaseolus indicates a genus endemic only to the New World.[2]
Species

Species have been organized into eight groups based on phylogenetic clades:[9][10][11]
Filiformis group

Phaseolus angustissimus A. Gray
Phaseolus filiformis—slimjim bean
Phaseolus carterae

Leptostachyus group

Phaseolus leptostachyus
Phaseolus macvaughii
Phaseolus micranthus

Lunatus group

Phaseolus augusti
Phaseolus bolivianus
Phaseolus lunatus—lima bean, butter bean
Phaseolus pachyrrhizoides
Phaseolus viridis
Phaseolus mollis

Pauciflorus group

Phaseolus pauciflorus
Phaseolus parvulus
Phaseolus perplexus
Phaseolus pluriflorus
Phaseolus tenellus

Pedicellatus group

Phaseolus altimontanus
Phaseolus dasycarpus
Phaseolus esperanzae
Phaseolus grayanus
Phaseolus laxiflorus
Phaseolus neglectus
Phaseolus pedicellatus
Phaseolus texensis

Polystachios group

Phaseolus albinervus
Phaseolus jaliscanus
Phaseolus juquilensis
Phaseolus maculatus—spotted bean
Phaseolus marechalii
Phaseolus polystachios
Phaseolus reticulatus
Phaseolus ritensis
Phaseolus smilacifolius

Tuerckheimii group

Phaseolus chiapasanus
Phaseolus gladiolatus
Phaseolus hintonii
Phaseolus oligospermus
Phaseolus tuerckheimii
Phaseolus xanthrotrichus
Phaseolus zimapanensis

Vulgaris group

Phaseolus acutifolius—tepary bean
Phaseolus albescens
Phaseolus coccineus—runner bean
Phaseolus costaricensis
Phaseolus dumosus—year bean
Phaseolus parvifolius
Phaseolus persistentus
Phaseolus vulgaris—common bean, French bean, black bean, kidney bean, pinto bean, green bean

Uncategorized

Phaseolus amblyosepalus
Phaseolus anisotrichos
Phaseolus brevicalyx
Phaseolus chacoensis
Phaseolus cibellii
Phaseolus galactoides
Phaseolus glabellus
Phaseolus leucanthus
Phaseolus macrolepis
Phaseolus massaiensis
Phaseolus microcarpus
Phaseolus nelsonii
Phaseolus oaxacanus
Phaseolus plagiocylix
Phaseolus polymorphus
Phaseolus sonorensis
Phaseolus vulcanicus


Allergenicity

The Phaseolus plant has an OPALS plant allergy scale rating of 4 out of 10, indicating moderate potential to cause allergic reactions, exacerbated by over-use of the same plant throughout a garden. Leaves can cause skin rash and old plants often carry Rust (fungus).[12]
References

"Phaseolus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Delgado-Salinas, A.; Thulin, M.; Pasquet, R.; Weeden, N.; Lavin, M. (2011). "Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: the names and identities of the American segregate genera". American Journal of Botany. 98 (10): 1694–715. doi:10.3732/ajb.1100069. PMID 21980163.
Freytag, George F.; Debouck, Daniel G. (2002). Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of the genus Phaseolus (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in North America, Mexico and Central America. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. ISBN 1889878111. OCLC 249436749.
Rosales-Serna, R.; Hernández-Delgado, S.; González-Paz, M.; Acosta-Gallegos, J. A.; Mayek-Pérez, N. (2005). "Genetic Relationships and Diversity Revealed by AFLP Markers in Mexican Common Bean Bred Cultivars". Crop Science. 45 (5): 1951. doi:10.2135/cropsci2004.0582.
Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Bellucci, Elisa; Rodriguez, Monica; Murgia, Maria L.; Gioia, Tania; Santo, Debora; Nanni, Laura; Attene, Giovanna (2017-05-08). "Beans (Phaseolus ssp.) as a Model for Understanding Crop Evolution". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 722. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.00722. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 5420584. PMID 28533789.
Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2:623, cited in Oxford English Dictionary s.v. 'phaseolin'
Oxford English Dictionary s.v. 'phaseolin'
φάσηλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
ILDIS Version 10.01
Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Bibler, Ryan; Lavin, Matt (2006-10-01). "Phylogeny of the Genus Phaseolus (Leguminosae): A Recent Diversification in an Ancient Landscape". Systematic Botany. 31 (4): 779–791. doi:10.1600/036364406779695960. ISSN 0363-6445. S2CID 14832239.
Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Turley, Tom; Richman, Adam; Lavin, Matt (July 1999). "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Cultivated and Wild Species of Phaseolus (Fabaceae)". Systematic Botany. 24 (3): 438. doi:10.2307/2419699. ISSN 0363-6445. JSTOR 2419699.
Ogren, Thomas Leo (2015). The Allergy-Fighting Garden. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 9781607744917.

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