Phlomis is a genus of about 100 species of herbaceous plants, subshrubs and shrubs in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean region east across central Asia to China. Common names include Jerusalem Sage and Lampwick Plant.
The overall size varies between species from 30 cm tall up to 2 m tall. The leaves are entire, opposite and decussate (each leaf pair at right angles to the next) and rugose or reticulate veined. The bracts (floral leaves) are similar or different from the lower leaves. All parts are frequently covered with hairs. Bracteoles, ovate, lanceolate or linear. The flowers are arranged in whorls (verticillasters) round the stems which are usually square in section with rounded corners, although tomentum on the stems can make them appear circular. The colour of the flowers varies from yellow to pink, purple and white. The calyx is tubular or campanulate with five or ten veins visible. Five teeth, either all equal or with the outer two longer than the others. The upper lip is hood shaped and laterally compressed (P. tuberosa, however, has an uncompressed lip with a dense bearded edge). The lower lip is trifid, the central lobe being larger than the lateral ones. There are four stamens ascending under the upper lip. Anther with forked end, the upper fork being shorter than the lower. The fruits are four three-sided, nutlets, and sometimes topped with hair, sometimes glabrous. The root system can be very extensive; roots of 6 week seedlings have been measured at 0.7 m.
Phlomis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Coleophora case-bearers C. phlomidella and C. phlomidis, which both feed exclusively on Phlomis spp.
Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License