Photinia

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Maloideae
Genus: Photinia
Species: P. amphidoxa - P. anlungensis - P. beauverdiana - P. beckii - P. benthamiana - P. berberidifolia - P. bodinieri - P. chihsiniana - P. chingiana - P. crassifolia -P. davidiana - P. davidsoniae - P. x fraseri - P. glabra - P. glomerata - P. integrifolia - P. kwangsiensis - P. lanuginosa - P. lasiogyna - P. lochengensis - P. loriformis - P. megaphylla - P. niitakayamensis - P. nussia - P. oblanceolata - †P. pageae - P. parvifolia - P. prionophylla - P. prunifolia - P. raupingensis - P. schneideriana - P. serratifolia - P. stenophylla - P. tomentosa - P. tushanensis - P. villosa - P. wrightiana - P. zhejiangensis

Name

Photinia Lindl.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Dansk: Glansmispel
中文: 石楠属

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Photinia (pronounced /fɵˈtɪniə/)[2] is a genus of about 40-60 species of small trees and large shrubs in the Rosaceae family. As interpreted here, they are restricted to warm temperate Asia, from the Himalaya east to Japan and south to India and Thailand, but some botanists also include the closely related North American species Heteromeles arbutifolia in Photinia as Photinia arbutifolia. The genus Stranvaesia is so similar in morphology to Photinia that its species have sometimes been included within it[3][4], but recent molecular data[5] indicate that the two genera are not related. The genus Aronia has been included in Photinia in some classifications[6], but recent molecular data confirm that these genera are not closely related[5]. Other close relatives include the firethorns (Pyracantha), cotoneasters (Cotoneaster) and hawthorns (Crataegus). The scientific name Photinia is widely used as the common name. Another name sometimes used is "Christmas berry", but this name is a source of confusion, since it is commonly applied to plants in several genera including Heteromeles, Lycium, Schinus, and Ruscus.

The name Photinia continies to be used for several species of small trees in the mountains of Mexico and Central America. These had formerly been included in the genus Photinia. [7]

Photinias typically grow from 3-15 m tall, with a usually irregular crown of angular branches; the branches are often (not always) thorny. The leaves are alternate, entire or finely toothed, varying between species from 3-15 cm in length and 1.5-5 cm wide; the majority of species are evergreen but several are deciduous. The flowers are produced in early summer in dense terminal corymbs; each flower is 5-10 mm diameter, with five rounded white petals; they have a mild, hawthorn-like scent. The fruit is a small pome, 4-12 mm across, bright red and berry-like, produced large quantities, maturing in the fall and often persisting well into the winter. The fruit are consumed by birds, including thrushes, waxwings and starlings; the seeds are dispersed in their droppings. Photinia species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Common Emerald, Feathered Thorn and Setaceous Hebrew Character.


Species

Evergreen species

* Photinia amphidoxa (see Stranvaesia amphidoxa)
* Photinia anlungensis
* Photinia beckii
* Photinia berberidifolia
* Photinia bodinieri
* Photinia chihsiniana
* Photinia chingiana
* Photinia crassifolia
* Photinia davidiana (see Stranvaesia davidiana)
* Photinia glabra - Japanese Photinia
* Photinia glomerata
* Photinia integrifolia
* Photinia kwangsiensis
* Photinia lanuginosa
* Photinia lasiogyna
* Photinia lasiopetala
* Photinia lochengensis
* Photinia loriformis
* Photinia megaphylla
* Photinia nussia (see. Stranvaesia nussia)
* Photinia prionophylla
* Photinia prunifolia
* Photinia raupingensis
* Photinia serratifolia (syn. Photinia serrulata)
* Photinia stenophylla
* Photinia tomentosa (see Stranvaesia tomentosa)
* Photinia tushanensis
* Photinia zhejiangensis

Flower of an ornamental shrub cultivar

Deciduous species

* Photinia arguta (syn. Pourthiaea arguta)
* Photinia beauverdiana (syn. Pourthiaea beauverdiana)
* Photinia benthamiana (syn. Pourthiaea benthamiana)
* Photinia bergerae
* Photinia blinii
* Photinia calleryana (syn. Pourthiaea calleryana)
* Photinia callosa
* Photinia chingshuiensis (syn. Pourthiaea chingshuiensis)
* Photinia fokienensis
* Photinia hirsuta
* Photinia impressivena
* Photinia komarovii
* Photinia lucida (syn. Pourthiaea lucida)
* Photinia obliqua
* Photinia parvifolia (syn. Pourthiaea parvifolia)
* Photinia pilosicalyx
* Photinia podocarpifolia
* Photinia schneideriana
* Photinia tsaii
* Photinia villosa (syn. Pourthiaea villosa)


Uses

Photinias are very popular ornamental shrubs, grown for their fruit and foliage. Numerous hybrids and cultivars are available; several of the cultivars are selected for their strikingly bright red young leaves in spring and summer. The most widely planted are:

* Photinia × fraseri (P. glabra × P. serratifolia) - Red Tip Photinia

* Photinia × fraseri 'Red Robin' - probably the most widely planted of all
* Photinia × fraseri 'Little Red Robin', a plant similar to 'Red Robin', but dwarf in stature with a ultimate height/spread of around 2-3ft
* Photinia × fraseri 'Camilvy'
* Photinia × fraseri 'Curly Fantasy'
* Photinia × fraseri 'Super Hedger' - a newer hybrid with strong upright growth
* Photinia × fraseri 'Pink Marble' also known as 'Cassini', a new cultivar with rose-pink tinted new growth and a creamy-white variegated margin on the leaves

* Photinia 'Redstart' (Stranvaesia davidiana × P. × fraseri)
* Photinia 'Palette' (parentage unknown)
* Photinia davidiana 'Fructu Luteo' (fruit yellow)
* Photinia davidiana 'Prostrata' (a low-growing form.)


Toxicity

* Photinia is poisonous to grazing animals. Although generally avoided due to the red color, cuttings mixed in with feed can cause adverse or deadly reactions. Animals without sufficient feed on which to graze will nibble on what they can.


References

1. ^ Potter, D.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R.C.; Oh, S.H.; Smedmark, J.E.E.; Morgan, D.R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K.R.; Arsenault, M.P.; Dickinson, T.A.; Campbell, C.S. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43.
2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
3. ^ Vidal J. E. (1965). Notes sur quelques Rosacées Asiatique (II) (Photinia, Stranvaesia). Adansonia 5: 221–237
4. ^ Kalkman C. (1973). The Malesian species of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Blumea 21: 413–442
5. ^ a b Campbell, C.S.; Evans, R.C.; Morgan, D.R.; Dickinson, T.A.; Arsenault, M.P. (2007). Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 119–145.
6. ^ Robertson, K.R.; Phipps, J.B.; Rohrer, J.R.; Smith, P.G. (1991). A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany. 16(2): 376–394.
7. ^ James B. Phipps. 1992. "Heteromeles and Photinia (Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae) of Mexico and Central America". Canadian Journal of Botany (Revue canadienne de botanique) 70(11):2138-2162.

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