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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Cichorioideae
Tribus: Cichorieae
Subtribus: Hypochaeridinae
Genus: Picris
Species: P. albida – P. amalecitana – P. angustifolia – P. asplenioides – P. babylonica – P. barbarorum – P. bracteata – P. burbidgeae – P. campylocarpa – P. compacta – P. conyzoides – P. cupuligera – P. cyanocarpa – P. cyprica – P. cyrenaica – P. davurica – P. divaricata – P. drummondii – P. eichleri – P. evae – P. galilaea – P. helminthioides – P. hieracioides – P. hispanica – P. hispidissima – P. humilis – P. japonica – P. junnanensis – P. kotschyi – P. longirostris – P. mauginiana – P. nuristanica – P. olympica – P. pauciflora – P. rhagadioloides – P. rivularis – P. scaberrima – P. scabra – P. sinuata – P. squarrosa – P. strigosa – P. sulphurea – P. wagenitzii – P. willkommii – P. xylopoda

Picris L., Sp. Pl. 2: 792. (1753)

Type species: Picris hieracioides L., Sp. Pl. 2: 792. (1753)


Medicusia Moench, Meth. 536. (1794)
Spitzelia Sch. Bip., Flora 16: 725. (1833)
Deckera Sch. Bip., Flora 17: 478. (1834)
Hagioseris Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1. 2(11): 35. (1849)

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 792.


Kilian N., Hand R. & Raab-Straube E.v. (general editors) 2021. Picris. Cichorieae Systematics Portal. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Feb. 16. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Picris. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 February 15. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Picris in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 February 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Picris. Published online. Accessed: 15 February 2021.
Tropicos.org 2018. Picris. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 June 22.

Vernacular names
العربية: مرير
беларуская: Гарлюха
čeština: hořčík
Deutsch: Bitterkräuter, Bitterkraut
English: Oxtongues
español: Spitzelia, Hagioseris, Deckera, Medicusia
suomi: Kitkeröt
հայերեն: Դառնիճ
日本語: コウゾリナ属
lietuvių: Kartylis
Nederlands: Bitterkruid
polski: Goryczel
русский: Горлюха
slovenčina: horčík
svenska: Strävfibblor
中文(简体): 毛连菜属
中文(繁體): 毛連菜屬
中文(臺灣): 毛連菜屬
中文: 毛连菜属

Picris (oxtongues) is a genus in the sunflower family described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.[2]

Picris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the grass moth Diasemia reticularis. Schinia cardui feeds exclusively on P. hieracioides.

The genus is widespread across Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia.[11][12][13]


Erect annual to perennial taprooted herbs, mostly branching, stem and leaves bearing stiff bristly hairs, with rather large, usually corymbose or paniculate heads of yellow flowers.[14][15]
Taxonomic History

The genus Picris was first validly described by Linnaeus in 1753[2] with the genus being accepted by a number of secondary sources including Plants of the World Online.[16] Linnaeus initially described four species with P. hieracioides, P. echioides, P. pyrenaica and P. asplenioides.[2] In 1913, Britton and Brown proposed P. asplenioides as the type species for the genus.[14] Subsequently, in 1930, Hitchcock and Green alternatively proposed P. hieracioides as the type species.[17] The Hitchcock and Green proposal was adopted by Lack in 1975 and accepted by Jarvis in 1992.[18][19] Lack argued that Linnaeus never saw P. asplenioides which Linnaeus regarded as an obscure species and no specimen could be found in the Linnean Herbarium.[18] For this reason Lack concluded that P. hieracioides should be designated as the type species.[18]

In 1794, the German botanist Conrad Moench described the genus Medicusia and the species M. aspera.[7] This genus has not been accepted and is considered a synonym of Picris. M. aspera has also been determined to be a synonym of P. rhagadioloides.[20]

Picris is from the Greek picros meaning 'bitter', in reference to the bitter taste of some species in the genus.[15][14]


Picris albida
Picris altissima
Picris amalecitana
Picris angustifolia
Picris aspera
Picris asplenioides
Picris atlantica
Picris babylonica
Picris barbarorum
Picris bracteatus
Picris burbidgeae
Picris campylocarpa
Picris comosa
Picris compacta
Picris conyzoides
Picris cupuligera
Picris cyanocarpa
Picris cyprica
Picris cyrenaica
Picris davurica
Picris divaricata
Picris drummondii
Picris eichleri
Picris evae
Picris flexuosa
Picris galilaea
Picris helminthioides
Picris hieracioides
Picris hispanica
Picris hispidissima
Picris humilis
Picris japonica
Picris junnanensis
Picris kotschyi
Picris littoralis
Picris longifolia
Picris longirostris
Picris macloviana
Picris macrantha
Picris macrorhiza
Picris manginiana
Picris morrisonensis
Picris nigricans
Picris nuristanica
Picris ohwiana
Picris olympica
Picris pauciflora
Picris pygmaea
Picris racemosa
Picris rhagadioloides
Picris rivularis
Picris sancta
Picris scaberrima
Picris scabra
Picris senecioides
Picris sinuata
Picris spinosissima
Picris squarrosa
Picris strigosa
Picris sulphurea
Picris wagenitzii
Picris willkommii
Picris xylopoda


1885 illustration from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany
Linnaeus 1753, p. 792.
"Picris". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxon 44: 611-612 (1995)
Tropicos, Picris L.
Schultz 1833, p. 725.
Moench 1794, p. 536.
Boissier 1849, p. 35.
Shultz 1834, p. 479.
Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 347 毛连菜属 mao lian cai shu Picris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 792. 1753.
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Picris
Atlas of Living Australia, search for Picris
Britton & Brown 1913, p. 311.
Holzapfel 2015, p. 143.
Kew Science Plants of the World Online, retrieved 19 July 2020
Hitchcock & Green 1930, p. 177.
Lack 1975.
Jarvis 1992.
"Medicusia Moench". Compositae. The Global Database.

The Plant List search for Picris


Boissier, Edmond (1849). Diagnoses plantarum Orientalium novarum. 1. 11.
Britton, Nathaniel Lord; Brown, Addison (1913). An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions, from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. 3 (2 ed.). New York: Scribner.
Compositae Working Group (CWG) (2020). "Compositae Database". Compositae Working Group (CWG). doi:10.14284/411. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
Hitchcock, A. S.; Green, M. L. (1929). "IV.-Proposal by A.S. Hitchcock (Washington) and M.L. Green (Kew).". International Botanical Congress, Cambridge (England) 1930. London: Printed under the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office, by Wyman & sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London. pp. 111–199.
Jarvis, C.E. (August 1992). Nicolson, Dan H. (ed.). "Seventy-Two Proposals for the Conservation of Types of Selected Linnaean Generic Names, the Report of Subcommittee 3C on the Lectotypification of Linnaean Generic Names". Taxon. 41 (3): 552–583. doi:10.2307/1222833. JSTOR 1222833. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
Lack, H. Walter (February 1975). "Type Specimens of the Linnaean Species of Picris L. (Compositae)". Taxon. 24 (1): 113–116. doi:10.2307/1219007. JSTOR 1219007.
Linnaeus, Carl (1753). Species plantarum : exhibentes plantas rite cognitas ad genera relatas, cum diferentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas (in Latin). 2. Berlin: Junk.
Moench, Conrad (1794). Methodus plantas horti botanici et agri Marburgensis :a staminum situ describendi (in Latin). 2. Marburgi Cattorum: in officina nova libraria academiae.
Holzapfel, S. (2015). Flora of Australia (PDF). Mantisalca. 37. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.
Schultz, Carl Heinrich `Bipontinus' (1833). Flora oder Botanische Zeitung :welche Recensionen, Abhandlungen, Aufsätze, Neuigkeiten und Nachrichten, die Botanik betreffend, enthält (in Latin and German). 16. Regensburg: Die Gesellschaft.
Schultz, Carl Heinrich `Bipontinus' (1834). Flora oder Botanische Zeitung :welche Recensionen, Abhandlungen, Aufsätze, Neuigkeiten und Nachrichten, die Botanik betreffend, enthält (in Latin and German). 17. Regensburg: Die Gesellschaft.

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