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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Pooideae
Tribus: Poeae
Subtribus: Poinae
Genus: Poa
Species

a

P. abbreviata – P. acicularifolia – P. acinaciphylla – P. acroleuca – P. acutifolia – P. aequalis – P. aequatoriensis – P. aequigluma – P. affinis – P. afghanica – P. aitchisonii – P. akmanii – P. albertii – P. albescens – P. almasovii – P. alopecurus – P. alpigena – P. alpina – P. alsodes – P. alta – P. altaica – P. ammophila – P. ampla – P. amplivaginata – P. anae – P. anceps – P. andicola – P. androgyna – P. angustifolia – P. ankaratrensis – P. annua – P. antipoda – P. apiculata – P. arachnifera – P. araratica – P. arctica – P. arcuata – P. arechavaletae – P. argaea – P. arida – P. arnowiae – P. asirensis – P. asperiflora – P. asperifolia – P. astonii – P. atropidiformis – P. atropurpurea – P. attenuata – P. aucklandica – P. aurigae – P. autumnalis – P. ayacuchensis – P. ayseniensis
b

P. bactriana – P. badensis – P. bajaensis – P. barrosiana – P. bergii – P. beringiana – P. bigelovii – P. billardierei – P. binata – P. binodis – P. boecheri – P. boelckei – P. bolanderi – P. boliviana – P. bomiensis – P. bonariensis – P. borneensis – P. boxiana – P. bradei – P. breviglumis – P. brevis – P. buchananii – P. bucharica – P. buchtienii – P. bulbosa – P. burmanica
c

P. cabreriana – P. calchaquiensis – P. calliopsis – P. callosa – P. calycina – P. candamoana – P. carazensis – P. carica – P. caucasica – P. celebica – P. celsa – P. cenisia – P. chaixii – P. chamaeclinos – P. chambersii – P. chapmaniana – P. chathamica – P. cheelii – P. chirripoensis – P. chokensis – P. chrysantha – P. chumbiensis – P. cita – P. clavigera – P. clelandii – P. clivicola – P. cockayneana – P. colensoi – P. compressa – P. confinis – P. congesta – P. cookii – P. cooperi – P. costiniana – P. crassicaudex – P. crassicaulis – P. crassinervis – P. cucullata – P. cumingii – P. curtifolia – P. cusickii – P. cuspidata
d

P. darwiniana – P. davisii – P. deminuta – P. densa – P. denticulata – P. dentigluma – P. denudata – P. deschampsioides – P. diaboli – P. diaphora – P. dimorphantha – P. dipsacea – P. disjecta – P. dissanthelioides – P. diversifolia – P. dolichophylla – P. douglasii – P. dozyi – P. drummondiana – P. durifolia – P. dusenii – P. dzongicola
e

P. eigii – P. eleanorae – P. eminens – P. ensiformis – P. epileuca – P. erectifolia
f

P. faberi – P. falconeri – P. fauriei – P. fawcettiae – P. fax – P. fendleriana – P. feratiana – P. fernaldiana – P. ferreyrae – P. fibrifera – P. filiculmis – P. flabellata – P. flaccidula – P. foliosa – P. fordeana – P. formosae – P. fragilis
g

P. gamblei – P. gammieana – P. garhwalensis – P. gayana – P. gigantea – P. gilgiana – P. glaberrima – P. glabriflora – P. glauca – P. glomerifera – P. golestanensis – P. grandis – P. granitica – P. grayana – P. griffithsii – P. grisebachii – P. gunnii – P. gymnantha
h

P. hachadoensis – P. hackelii – P. hakusanensis – P. halmaturina – P. hartzii – P. hayachinensis – P. hedbergii – P. helenae – P. helmsii – P. hentyi – P. hesperia – P. hiemata – P. hieronymi – P. himalayana – P. hirtiglumis – P. hisauchii – P. hissarica – P. holciformis – P. homomalla – P. hookeri – P. horridula – P. hothamensis – P. howellii – P. huancavelicae – P. hubbardiana – P. huecu – P. humilis – P. humillima – P. hybrida – P. hylobates – P. hypsinephis
i

P. ibarii – P. iberica – P. imbecilla – P. imperialis – P. inconspicua – P. incrassata – P. indigesta – P. induta – P. infirma – P. interior – P. intrusa – P. ircutica – P. iridifolia
j

P. jansenii – P. jeremiadis – P. jubata – P. jugicola
k

P. kamczatensis – P. keckii – P. kelloggii – P. kenteica – P. kerguelensis – P. keysseri – P. khasiana – P. kilimanjarica – P. kirkii – P. koksuensis – P. kolymensis – P. krylovii – P. kuborensis – P. kumgansani – P. kurdistanica – P. kurtzii
l

P. labillardieri – P. lachenensis – P. laetevirens – P. lamii – P. lanata – P. langtangensis – P. languida – P. lanigera – P. lanuginosa – P. lapponica – P. lavrenkoi – P. laxa – P. laxiflora – P. laxiuscula – P. legionensis – P. leibergii – P. leioclada – P. leptalea – P. leptoclada – P. leptocoma – P. lettermanii – P. lhasaensis – P. ligularis – P. ligulata – P. lilloi – P. lindebergii – P. lindsayi – P. linearifolia – P. lipskyi – P. litorosa – P. longifolia – P. longii – P. longiramea – P. lowanensis – P. lunata
m

P. macrantha – P. macroanthera – P. macrocalyx – P. macroclada – P. macusaniensis – P. madecassa – P. magadanica – P. magensiana – P. maia – P. mairei – P. maniototo – P. mannii – P. marcida – P. markgrafii – P. marshallii – P. masenderana – P. matri-occidentalis – P. matsumurae – P. matthewsii – P. megalantha – P. meionectes – P. membranigluma – P. menachensis – P. mendocina – P. minimiflora – P. minor – P. moabitica – P. molineri – P. mollis – P. montevidensis – P. morrisii – P. mucuchachensis – P. muhavurensis – P. mulalensis – P. mulleri – P. multinodis – P. munozensis – P. muricata – P. myriantha
n

P. nahuelhuapiensis – P. nankoensis – P. napensis – P. nascopieana – P. nemoraliformis – P. nemoralis – P. neosachalinensis – P. nepalensis – P. nephelophila – P. nervosa – P. nipponica – P. nitidespiculata – P. nivicola – P. novae-zelandiae – P. novarae – P. nubensis – P. nubigena
o

P. obvallata – P. occidentalis – P. oligeria – P. orizabensis – P. orthophylla – P. oscariana – P. ovata
p

P. pagophila – P. palmeri – P. paludigena – P. palustris – P. pannonica – P. paposana – P. papuana – P. paramoensis – P. pardoana – P. parva – P. parviceps – P. parvifolia – P. patagonica – P. pattersonii – P. pauciflora – P. paucispicula – P. pearsonii – P. pedersenii – P. pentapolitana – P. perconcinna – P. perennis – P. perligulata – P. perrieri – P. petrophila – P. petrosa – P. pfisteri – P. phariana – P. phillipsiana – P. pilata – P. pilcomayensis – P. pilgeri – P. piperi – P. pirinica – P. pitardiana – P. planifolia – P. platyantha – P. plicata – P. poecila – P. pogonantha – P. poiformis – P. poiphagorum – P. polychroa – P. polycolea – P. polyneuron – P. poophagorum – P. porphyroclados – P. porsildii – P. pratensis – P. prichardii – P. primae – P. pringlei – P. prolixior – P. pseudamoena – P. pseudoabbreviata – P. pseudoaequigluma – P. pseudoattenuata – P. pseudobulbosa – P. pseudoschimperiana – P. pseudotibetica – P. pubinervis – P. pulviniformis – P. pumila – P. pumilio – P. pungionifolia – P. pusilla – P. pygmaea
q

P. qinghaiensis – P. quadrata
r

P. radula – P. raduliformis – P. ragonesei – P. rajbhandarii – P. ramosissima – P. rauhii – P. reflexa – P. rehmannii – P. reitzii – P. remota – P. resinulosa – P. rhadina – P. rhizomata – P. rigidifolia – P. rigidula – P. rivas-martinezii – P. rodwayi – P. roemeri – P. rohmooana – P. rupicola – P. ruprechtii – P. ruwenzoriensis
s

P. sachalinensis – P. sallacustris – P. saltuensis – P. sandvicensis – P. scaberula – P. scabrivaginata – P. schimperiana – P. schischkinii – P. schistacea – P. schizantha – P. scitula – P. secunda – P. seleri – P. sellowii – P. senex – P. serpaiana – P. setulosa – P. sharpii – P. shuka – P. shumushuensis – P. sibirica – P. sichotensis – P. sieberiana – P. sierrae – P. sikkimensis – P. silvicola – P. simensis – P. sinaica – P. siphonoglossa – P. skvortzovii – P. smirnowii – P. soderstromii – P. spania – P. speluncarum – P. sphondylodes – P. spiciformis – P. spicigera – P. stapfiana – P. stebbinsii – P. stellaris – P. stenantha – P. stepparia – P. sterilis – P. stewartiana – P. stiriaca – P. strictiramea – P. stuckertii – P. suavis – P. subfastigiata – P. sublanata – P. sublimis – P. subspicata – P. subvestita – P. sudicola – P. sugawarae – P. suksdorfii – P. sunbisinii – P. superata – P. superbiens – P. supina – P. swallenii – P. sylvestris – P. szechuensis
t

P. tacanae – P. taiwanicola – P. takasagomontana – P. talamancae – P. tanfiljewii – P. tangii – P. telata – P. tenera – P. tenerrima – P. tennantiana – P. tenuicula – P. thomasii – P. tianschanica – P. tibetica – P. timoleontis – P. tolmatchewii – P. tonsa – P. tovarii – P. trachyphylla – P. tracyi – P. trautvetteri – P. trichophylla – P. trinervis – P. tristigmatica – P. trivialiformis – P. trivialis – P. trollii – P. tuberifera – P. tucumana – P. tzvelevii
u

P. ullungdoensis – P. umbricola – P. umbrosa – P. unilateralis – P. unispiculata – P. ursina – P. urssulensis – P. uruguayensis – P. ussuriensis – P. uzonica
v

P. vaginata – P. variegata – P. venosa – P. veresczaginii – P. versicolor – P. vorobievii – P. vrangelica – P. vvedenskyi
w

P. wardiana – P. wendtii – P. wheeleri – P. wilhelminae – P. wisselii – P. wolfii
x

P. xenica – P. xingkaiensis – P. yaganica
z

P. zhongdianensis

Nothospecies

P. x gaspensis – P. x jemlandica – P. x limosa – P. x multonomae – P. x nematophylla – P. x nobilis – P. x turica
Name

Poa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67 (1753).

Type species: Poa pratensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67–68. (1753) nom. cons. et typ. cons.

Synonyms

Homotypic
Panicularia Heist. ex Fabr., Enum.: 207 (1759), nom. superfl.
Poagris Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 18 (1837), nom. superfl.
Paneion Lundell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 221 (1915), nom. superfl.
Heterotypic
Anthochloa Nees & Meyen, Observ. Bot. 2: 14 (1835).
Dissanthelium Trin., Linnaea 10: 305 (1836).
Phalaridium Nees & Meyen in C.G.D.Nees von Esenbeck, Gramineae: 29 (1841).
Stenochloa Nutt., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4: 25 (1848).
Dasypoa Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 716 (1898).
Aphanelytrum Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 52: 12 (1902).
Graminastrum E.H.L.Krause, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 32(2): 348 (1914).
Libyella Pamp., Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1925: 151 (1925).
Eremopoa Roshev. in V.L.Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 2: 756 (1934).
Lindbergia Bor, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 62: 467 (1968), nom. illeg.
Lindbergella Bor, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 63: 368 (1969).
Austrofestuca (Tzvelev) E.B.Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 81(5): 55 (1976).
Parodiochloa C.E.Hubb., Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8: 395 (1981).
Tovarochloa T.D.Macfarl. & But, Brittonia 34: 478 (1982).
Neuropoa Clayton, Kew Bull. 40: 728 (1985).
Tzvelevia E.B.Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 90(5): 103 (1985).
Ochlopoa (Asch. & Graebn.) H.Scholz, Ber. Inst. Landschafts Pflanzenökol. Univ. Hohenheim Beih. 16: 58 (2003)

References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 67. Reference page.

Additional references

Birch, J.L., Cantrill, D.J., Walsh, N.G. & Murphy, D.J. 2014. Phylogenetic investigation and divergence dating of Poa (Poaceae, tribe Poeae) in the Australasian region. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 175(4): 523–552. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12185 Reference page.
Gillespie, L.J., Archambault, A. & Soreng, R.J. 2007. Phylogeny of Poa (Poaceae) Based on trnT–trnF Sequence Data: Major Clades and Basal Relationships. Aliso 23: 1 420-434. Available online. Accessed 18 Dec. 2013.
Hunter, A.M., Orlovich, D.A., Lloyd, K.M., Lee, W.G. & Lee, D.J. 2007. The generic position of Austrofestuca littoralis and the reinstatement of Hookerochloa and Festucella (Poaceae) based on evidence from nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL‐trnF) DNA sequences. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 253–262. DOI: 10.1080/0028825X.2004.9512902
Gillespie, L.J., Soreng, R.J. & Jacobs, S.W.L. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Australian Poa (Poaceae: Poinae), including molecular evidence for two new genera, Saxipoa and Sylvipoa. Australian Systematic Botany 22: 413–436.
Refulio-Rodriguez, N.F., Columbus, J.T., Gillespie, L.J., Peterson, P.M. & Soreng, R.J. 2012. Molecular Phylogeny of Dissanthelium (Poaceae: Pooideae) and its Taxonomic Implications. Systematic Botany 37: 122–133.
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. 2006 onwards. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Poa. Published online. Accessed 24 Sept. 2013.
Soreng, R.J. & Peterson, P.M. 2012. Revision of Poa L. (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poeae, Poinae) in Mexico: new records, re-evaluation of P. ruprechtii, and two new species, P. palmeri and P. wendtii. PhytoKeys 15: 1–104. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.15.3084

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Poa in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Dec. 1. Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Poa. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Dec. 17.
Tropicos.org 2013. Poa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Dec. 17.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Poa. Published online. Accessed: 17 Dec. 2013.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Poa.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Метлюжок
dansk: Rapgræs
Deutsch: Rispengräser
English: Meadow-grass
suomi: Nurmikat
français: Pâturin
hornjoserbsce: Lipnica
íslenska: Sveifgrös
ქართული: თივაქასრა
lietuvių: Miglė
македонски: Ливадарка
polski: Wiechlina
русский: Мятлик
slovenčina: Lipnica
svenska: Gröen
Türkçe: Salkım otu

Poa[2] is a genus of about 500 species of grasses, native to the temperate regions of both hemispheres. Common names include meadow-grass (mainly in Europe and Asia), bluegrass (mainly in North America), tussock (some New Zealand species), and speargrass. Poa (πόα) is Greek for "fodder". Poa are members of the subfamily Pooideae of the family Poaceae.[3][4][5][6]

Bluegrass, which has green leaves, derives its name from the seed heads, which are blue when the plant is allowed to grow to its natural height of two to three feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters).[7][8][9]

The genus Poa includes both annual and perennial species. Most are monoecious, but a few are dioecious (separate male and female plants). The leaves are narrow, folded or flat, sometimes bristled, and with the basal sheath flattened or sometimes thickened, with a blunt or hooded apex and membranaceous ligule.[10][11][12]

Cultivation and uses

Many of the species are important pasture plants, used extensively by grazing livestock. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is the most extensively used cool-season grass used in lawns, sports fields, and golf courses in the United States.[13] Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) can sometimes be considered a weed.[14]

According to second-century physician Galen, the roots of certain species are good for treating fresh wounds and bleeding. In the sixteenth century, Poa grasses were used to treat inflammation of the kidney.[15]

Some of the Poa species are popular for gardens and for landscaping in New Zealand.
Insect foodplant
See also: List of Lepidoptera that feed on grasses

Lepidoptera whose caterpillars feed on Poa include:

Agriphila inquinatella
Cercyonis pegala (common wood-nymph)
Poanes hobomok (Hobomok skipper)
Poanes zabulon (Zabulon skipper)

Selected species

Poa abbreviata – short bluegrass
Poa affinis
Poa alpigena – northern meadow-grass
Poa alpina – alpine meadow-grass
Poa alsodes – grove bluegrass
Poa ammophila – sand bluegrass
Poa angustifolia – narrow-leaved meadow-grass
Poa annua – annual meadow-grass, annual bluegrass
Poa arachnifera – Texas bluegrass
Poa arctica – Arctic meadow-grass
Poa arida
Poa atropurpurea – San Bernardino bluegrass
Poa badensis
Poa balfourii
Poa bigelovii
Poa bolanderi
Poa bulbosa – bulbous meadow-grass
Poa cita – silver tussock
Poa chaixii – broad-leaved meadow-grass
Poa chathamica
Poa colensoi – blue tussock
Poa compressa – flattened meadow-grass
Poa confinis
Poa cookii – Cook's tussock
Poa costiniana – bog snow-grass
Poa cusickii
Poa cuspidata
Poa diaboli – Diablo Canyon bluegrass
Poa douglasii – Douglas bluegrass
Poa drummondiana
Poa dura
Poa ensiformis – sword tussock-grass, purple-sheathed sussock-grass
Poa fawcettiae – horny snow-grass
Poa fendleriana
Poa flabellata
Poa flexuosa – wavy meadow-grass
Poa foliosa – muttonbird poa
Poa glauca – glaucous meadow-grass
Poa gunnii
Poa hiemata – soft snow-grass
Poa howellii
Poa humilis – spreading meadow grass
Poa infirma – early meadow-grass
Poa iridifolia
Poa kelloggii
Poa kerguelensis
Poa kunthii
Poa labillardierei – common tussock-grass
Poa leioclada
Poa leptocoma
Poa litorosa
Poa macrantha
Poa mannii
Poa meionectes
Poa mireniana
Poa morrisii – soft tussock-grass
Poa napensis – Napa bluegrass
Poa nemoralis – wood meadow-grass
Poa novarae
Poa paludigena – bog bluegrass
Poa palustris – swamp meadow-grass
Poa paramoensis
Poa poiformis – coast tussock-grass, blue tussock-grass
Poa pratensis – smooth meadow-grass, Kentucky bluegrass
Poa rodwayi
Poa sandvicensis
Poa secunda – alkali bluegrass, big bluegrass, Nevada bluegrass, pine bluegrass, Sandberg bluegrass, wild bluegrass
Poa sieberiana – grey tussock-grass
Poa siphonoglossa
Poa subcaerulea – spreading meadow-grass
Poa supina – creeping meadow-grass
Poa trivialis – rough meadow-grass
Poa unilateralis

References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
From Greek πόα "grass, meadow."
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 257 早熟禾属 zao shu he shu Poa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 67. 1753
Flora of Pakistan
Altervista Flora Italiana, genera Poa Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine includes photos and distribution maps for several species
Soreng, R. J. & P. M. Peterson. 2012. Revision of Poa L. (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poeae, Poinae) in Mexico: new records, re-evaluation of P. ruprechtii, and two new species, P. palmeri and P. wendtii. PhytoKeys 15: 1–104
What Makes Kentucky's Bluegrass Blue. New York Times. June 3, 1993.]
Longhi-Wagner, H. M. 1987. Gramineae. Tribo Poeae, in Fl. Ilust. Rio Grande do Sul. Boletim do Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 41: 1–191
Zon, A. P. M. v. 1992. Graminées du Cameroun. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 92–1(2): 1–557
Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul
Gibbs Russell, L. W., M. Koekermoer, L. Smook, N. P. Barker, H. M. Anderson & M. J. Dallwitz. 1990. Grasses of Southern Africa. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 58: i–ix,.
Negritto, M. A. & A. M. Antón. 2000. Revisión de las especies de Poa (Poaceae) del noroeste argentino. Kurtziana 28(1): 95–136
Dvorchak, Robert (June 13, 2007). "Oakmont-inspired Stimpmeter allows USGA to accurately measure speed, consistency of putting surfaces". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
Ohlendorf, B.; Cudney, D. W.; Elmore, C. L.; Gibeault, V. A. (April 2003). "Annual Bluegrass Management Guidelines--UC IPM". University of California. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
Gerarde, John (1597). "The Herball or Generall Historie Of Plantes". Retrieved 2009-01-11.

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