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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Primulaceae
Subfamilia: Primuloideae
Genus: Primula
Subgenera: (5)
P. subg. Aleuritia – P. subg. Auganthus – P. subg. Auriculastrum – P. subg. Primula – P. subg. Sphondylia
Species
Top · a · b · c · d · e · f · g · h · i · j · k · l · m · n · o · p · q · r · s · t · u · v · w · x · y · z
a

P. advena – P. aemula – P. aerinantha – P. afghanica – P. agleniana – P. albenensis – P. alcalina – P. algida – P. aliciae – P. allionii – P. alpicola – P. alsophila – P. ambita – P. amethystina – P. amoena – P. angustifolia – P. anisodora – P. annulata – P. anthemifolia – P. anvilensis – P. apicicallosa – P. aromatica – P. arunachalensis – P. asarifolia – P. assamica – P. atrodentata – P. aurantiaca – P. auricula – P. auriculata
b

P. baileyana – P. baldshuanica – P. barbatula – P. barbicalyx – P. bathangensis – P. bayernii – P. bella – P. bellidifolia – P. bergenioides – P. bhutanica – P. blandula – P. blattariformis – P. blinii – P. bomiensis – P. boni-auxilii – P. boothii – P. borealis – P. boreiocalliantha – P. botschantzevii – P. boveana – P. brachystoma – P. bracteata – P. bracteosa – P. brevis – P. breviscapa – P. bryophylla – P. bukukunica – P. bullata – P. bulleyana – P. bungeana – P. buryana
c

P. caldaria – P. calderiana – P. calliantha – P. calthifolia – P. calyptrata – P. candicans – P. capillaris – P. capitata – P. capitellata – P. cardioeides – P. carniolica – P. carolinehenryae – P. caulifera – P. cavaleriei – P. caveana – P. cawdoriana – P. celsiiformis – P. centellifolia – P. cerina – P. cernua – P. chamaedoron – P. chamaethauma – P. chapaensis – P. chartacea – P. chasmophila – P. chienii – P. chimingiana – P. chionantha – P. chionata – P. chionogenes – P. chrysochlora – P. chrysostoma – P. chumbiensis – P. chungensis – P. cicutariifolia – P. cinerascens – P. clarkei – P. clusiana – P. clutterbuckii – P. cockburniana – P. coerulea – P. comata – P. comberi – P. concholoba – P. concinna – P. conspersa – P. cooperi – P. cortusoides – P. crassa – P. crocifolia – P. cuneifolia – P. cunninghamii – P. cusickiana
d

P. daonensis – P. darialica – P. davidii – P. davisii – P. deflexa – P. dejuniana – P. densa – P. denticulata – P. denticuloides – P. deorum – P. deuteronana – P. diantha – P. dickieana – P. dictyophylla – P. digenea – P. divaricata – P. drummondiana – P. dryadifolia – P. duclouxii – P. dueckelmannii – P. dumicola – P. duthieana
e

P. eburnea – P. edelbergii – P. edgeworthii – P. efarinosa – P. effusa – P. egaliksensis – P. elatior – P. elizabethiae – P. elliptica – P. elongata – P. epilithica – P. epilosa – P. erosa – P. erratica – P. erythra – P. erythrocarpa – P. esquirolii – P. euchaites – P. eugeniae – P. euosma – P. eximia
f

P. faberi – P. fagosa – P. falcifolia – P. fangii – P. fangingensis – P. farinifolia – P. farinosa – P. farreriana – P. fasciculata – P. fea – P. fedtschenkoi – P. fenghwaiana – P. fernaldiana – P. filchnerae – P. filipes – P. fimbriata – P. finmarchica – P. firmipes – P. fistulosa – P. flabellifera – P. flaccida – P. flagellaris – P. flava – P. flexuosa – P. floribunda – P. florindae – P. forbesii – P. frondosa
g

P. gambeliana – P. garhwalica – P. gaubaeana – P. gemmifera – P. geraniifolia – P. geranophylla – P. giraldiana – P. glabra – P. glandulifera – P. glaucescens – P. glomerata – P. glutinosa – P. gracilenta – P. gracilipes – P. graminifolia – P. grandis – P. griffithii – P. grignensis
h

P. halleri – P. handeliana – P. hazarica – P. helodoxa – P. heterochroma – P. heucherifolia – P. hidakana – P. hilaris – P. hirsuta – P. hoffmanniana – P. hoii – P. homogama – P. hongshanensis – P. hookeri – P. huashanensis – P. hubeiensis – P. hunanensis – P. hydrocotylifolia – P. hylobia – P. hypoleuca
i

P. ianthina – P. iljinskii – P. inayatii – P. incana – P. inopinata – P. intanoensis – P. integrifolia – P. interjacens – P. intermedia – P. intricata – P. involucrata – P. ioessa – P. irregularis
j

P. jaffreyana – P. japonica – P. jesoana – P. jigmediana – P. jiugongshanensis – P. jucunda – P. juliae
k

P. kaufmanniana – P. kialensis – P. kingii – P. kisoana – P. kitaibeliana – P. klattii – P. klaveriana – P. knorringiana – P. knuthiana
P. kusnetzovii – P. kwangtungensis – P. kweichouensis
l

P. lacerata – P. laciniata – P. lactiflora – P. lactucoides – P. latifolia – P. latisecta – P. laurentiana – P. laxiuscula – P. leptophylla – P. leskeniensis – P. levicalyx – P. lihengiana – P. lilacina – P. limbata – P. limnoica – P. listeri – P. lithophila – P. littledalei – P. longipes – P. longiscapa – P. lungchiensis – P. luteola
m

P. macrocarpa – P. macrophylla – P. magellanica – P. malacoides – P. mallophylla – P. malvacea – P. marginata – P. matthioli – P. maximowiczii – P. mazurenkoae – P. megalocarpa – P. megaseifolia – P. meiotera – P. melanantha – P. melanodonta – P. merrilliana – P. mianyangensis – P. minima – P. minkwitziae – P. minor – P. minutissima – P. mistassinica – P. miyabeana – P. modesta – P. mollis – P. monticola – P. morissetii – P. moschophora – P. moupinensis – P. munroi – P. muscarioides – P. muscoides
n

P. nanocapitata – P. neurocalyx – P. nghialoensis – P. ninguida – P. nipponica – P. nivalis – P. nutans – P. nutantiflora
o

P. obconica – P. obliqua – P. obsessa – P. obtusifolia – P. occlusa – P. odontica – P. odontocalyx – P. optata – P. orbicularis – P. oreodoxa – P. ovalifolia – P. oxygraphidifolia
p

P. palinuri – P. palmata – P. pamirica – P. parryi – P. partschiana – P. pauliana – P. pedemontana – P. pelargoniifolia – P. pellucida – P. pengzhouensis – P. persimilis – P. petelotii – P. petiolaris – P. petrocallis – P. pinnata – P. pinnatifida – P. poissonii – P. polonensis – P. poluninii – P. polyneura – P. praetermissa – P. prenantha – P. prevernalis – P. priflorens – P. primulina – P. prolifera – P. pseudodenticulata – P. pskemensis – P. pulchella – P. pulchra – P. pullulatrix – P. pulverulenta – P. pumilio – P. purdomii – P. pycnoloba
q

P. qinghaiensis
r

P. ramzanae – P. rebeccae – P. recubariensis – P. reflexa – P. reidii – P. reinii – P. renifolia – P. repentina – P. reptans – P. reticulata – P. rhodochroa – P. rimicola – P. rockii – P. rosea – P. rotundifolia – P. rubicunda – P. rubifolia – P. rugosa – P. runcinata – P. rupestris – P. rupicola – P. ruprechtii – P. rusbyi – P. russeola
s

P. saguramica – P. sandemaniana – P. sapphirina – P. saturata – P. saxatilis – P. scandinavica – P. scapigera – P. schlagintweitiana – P. scopulicola – P. scotica – P. secundiflora – P. septemloba – P. serrata – P. serratifolia – P. sertulum – P. sessilis – P. sharmae – P. sherriffiae – P. siamensis – P. sieboldii – P. sikkimensis – P. silaensis – P. sinensis – P. sinoexscapa – P. sinolisteri – P. sinomollis – P. sinuata – P. siphonantha – P. smithiana – P. soldanelloides – P. sonchifolia – P. soongii – P. sorachiana – P. souliei – P. spathulifolia – P. spectabilis – P. specuicola – P. spicata – P. stenocalyx – P. stenodonta – P. stirtoniana – P. stricta – P. strumosa – P. stuartii – P. subpyrenaica – P. subularia – P. suffrutescens – P. szechuanica
t

P. takedana – P. taliensis – P. tangutica – P. tanneri – P. tanupoda – P. tardiflora – P. tayloriana – P. tenella – P. tenuiloba – P. tenuipes – P. tenuituba – P. thearosa – P. tibetica – P. tongolensis – P. tosaensis – P. tridentifera – P. triloba – P. tsariensis – P. tschuktschorum – P. tsiangii – P. tsongpenii – P. tyrolensis – P. tzetsouensis
u

P. umbratilis – P. urticifolia – P. uzungolensis
v

P. vaginata – P. valentinae – P. valentiniana – P. veitchiana – P. veris – P. verticillata – P. vialii – P. villosa – P. vilmoriniana – P. violacea – P. violaris – P. virginis – P. vulgaris
w

P. waddellii – P. walshii – P. waltonii – P. wangii – P. warshenewskiana – P. watsonii – P. wattii – P. wawushanica – P. wenshanensis – P. whitei – P. wigramiana – P. wilsonii – P. wollastonii – P. woodwardii – P. woonyoungiana – P. woronowii – P. wulfeniana
x

P. xanthopa
y

P. youngeriana – P. yunnanensis – P. yuparensis
z

P. zeylanica – P. zhui
}
Source(s) of checklist:

Names in synonymy

P. apennina – P. beesiana – P. ciliata – P. clevelandii – P. conjugens – P. forrestii – P. fragrans – P. kongboensis – P. maikhaensis – P. membranifolia – P. prattii – P. pseudoglabra – P. scopulorum – P. socialis
Nothospecies

P. × coronata – P. × digenea – P. × media – P. × murbeckii – P. × muretiana – P. × polyantha – P. × pubescens – P. × steinii – P. × thomasinii
Name

Primula L., Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753; Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 70. 1754.

Lectotype species: Primula veris L., designated by N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 2: 708. 1913, approved by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot. 128. Aug 1929.

Synonyms

Homotypic
Paralysis J.Hill, Brit. Herbal 68. 1756.
Heterotypic
Aleuritia (Duby) Opiz in Bercht. & Opiz, Oekon.-Tech. Fl. Böhmens 2(2): 4, 193. 1839.
Type species: P. farinosa L.
Auganthus Link, Handbuch 1: 415. 1829.
Type species: A. praenitens (Ker Gawl.) Link
Cankrienia De Vriese, Jaarb. Kon Ned. Maatsch. Tuinb. 1850: 30. 1850.
Type species: C. chrysantha De Vriese, nom. illeg.
Dodecatheon L., Sp. Pl. 1: 144. 1753.
Type species: D. meadia L.
Evotrochis Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 76. 1836 publ. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Kablikia Opiz in Bercht. & Opiz, Oekon.-Tech. Fl. Böhmens 2(2): 215–216. 1839.
Type species: K. minima (L.) Opiz
Meadia Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 1754.
Type species: M. dodecatheon Mill.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 142. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 70. Reference page.
Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 2: 708. Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2019. Primula. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug 10. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Primula in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug 10. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2019. Primula. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug 10.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Primula in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2019 Aug 10.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Primula in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: زهرة الربيع
azərbaycanca: Novruzçiçəyi
български: Иглика
čeština: prvosenka
Чӑвашла: Сар пуç
Cymraeg: Briallen
dansk: Kodriver
Deutsch: Primeln
English: cowslip, primrose
Esperanto: Primolo
español: Primavera
eesti: Nurmenukk
فارسی: پامچال (سرده)
suomi: Esikot
arpetan: Peca-usél
français: Primevère
עברית: בכור אביב
hrvatski: jaglaci
hornjoserbsce: Kropačk
magyar: Kankalin
հայերեն: Գնարբուկ
日本語: サクラソウ属
ქართული: ფურისულა
қазақша: Примула
한국어: 앵초속
Кыргызча: Примула
лакку: Ччиккул тӀутӀи
Limburgs: Sjleutelbloom
lietuvių: Raktažolė
Nederlands: Sleutelbloem
norsk: Nøkleblomslekten
Ирон: Æстъоппæлæ
polski: Pierwiosnek
русский: Первоцвет
slovenčina: prvosienka
svenska: Vivesläktet
Türkçe: Çuha çiçeği
українська: Первоцвіт
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Navroʻzgul
Tiếng Việt: Chi Anh thảo
中文: 報春花屬

Primula /ˈprɪmjʊlə/[1] is a genus of mainly herbaceous[2] flowering plants in the family Primulaceae. They include the familiar wildflower of banks and verges, the primrose (P. vulgaris). Other common species are P. auricula (auricula), P. veris (cowslip) and P. elatior (oxlip). These species and many others are valued for their ornamental flowers. They have been extensively cultivated and hybridised - in the case of the primrose, for many hundreds of years. Primula are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, south into tropical mountains in Ethiopia,, Indonesia and New Guinea, and in temperate southern South America. Almost half of the known species are from the Himalayas.[2]

Primula has over 500 species in traditional treatments, and more if certain related genera are included within its circumscription.[3]
Description

Primula is a complex and varied genus, with a range of habitats from alpine slopes to boggy meadows. Plants bloom mostly during the spring, with flowers often appearing in spherical umbels on stout stems arising from basal rosettes of leaves; their flowers can be purple, yellow, red, pink, blue, or white. Some species show a white mealy bloom (farina) on various parts of the plant.[2] Many species are adapted to alpine climates.
Taxonomy

Primula was known at least as early as the mediaeval herbalists, although first formally described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753,[4] and later in 1754 in his Flora Anglica. Linnaeus described seven species of Primula. One of its earliest scientific treatments was that of Charles Darwin study of heterostyly in 1877 (The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species). Since then, heterostyly (and homostyly) have remained important considerations in the taxonomic classification of Primula.[5][6] Primula is a member of the Primulaceae family. The most complete treatment of the family, with nearly 1000 species arranged into 22 genera, was by Pax and Knuth in 1905.[7]
Phylogeny

Primula is the largest genus in the family Primulaceae, within which it is placed in the subfamily Primuloideae, being the nominative genus.[8]

The position of Primula within the family and its relationship to other genera is shown in this cladogram:

  Primulaceae s.l.  
Maesoideae

Maesa

  Theophrastaceae  

Clavija

Samolus

Primulaceae

Primula

  Myrsinaceae  

Lysimachia

Myrsine


Classification

The genus Dodecatheon originated from within Primula, so some authorities include the 14 species of Dodecatheon in Primula.[9]
Sections of genus Primula

The classification of the genus Primula has been investigated by botanists for over a century. As the genus is both large and diverse (with about 430–500 species), botanists have organized the species in various sub-generic groups. The most common is division into a series of thirty sections.[10][11] Some of these sections (e.g. Vernales, Auricula) contain many species; others contain only one.

Amethystina
Auricula
Bullatae
Candelabra
Capitatae
Carolinella
Cortusoides
Cuneifolia
Denticulata
Dryadifolia
Farinosae
Floribundae
Grandis
Malacoidea
Malvacea
Minutissimae
Muscaroides
Nivales
Obconica
Parryi
Petiolares
Pinnatae
Pycnoloba
Reinii
Rotundifolia
Sikkimensis
Sinenses
Soldanelloideae
Souliei
Vernales

Selected species
Main article: List of Primula species

Species include:[12][13][14]
Primula algida
Primula auriantaca
Primula beesiana

Primula alcalina (bluedome primrose)
Primula algida
Primula aliciae
Primula allionii (Allioni's primrose)
Primula alpicola (moonlight primrose)
Primula amethystina
Primula angustifolia (alpine primrose)
Primula anisodora (anise primrose)
Primula anvilensis (boreal primrose)
Primula appenina
Primula arunachalensis[15]
Primula atrodentata
Primula aurantiaca (primevère à fleurs oranges)
Primula aureata
Primula auricula (auricula, bear's ear)
Primula auriculata
Primula bathangensis
Primula beesiana (candelabra primrose)
Primula bella
Primula bellidifolia
Primula bergenioides[16]
Primula bhutanica
Primula blattariformis
Primula boothii
Primula borealis (northern primrose)
Primula bracteosa
Primula bulleyana (candelabra primrose)

Primula capitata ssp. mooreana
Primula clarkei
Primula denticulata
Primula elatior (oxlip)
Primula florindae

Primula calderiana
Primula calliantha
Primula calyptrata[17]
Primula capillaris (Ruby Mountain primrose)
Primula capitata
Primula capitata ssp. mooreana
Primula capitata ssp. crispata
Primula capitellata
Primula carniolica[18] (Carniolan primrose)
Primula caveana
Primula cawdoriana
Primula cernua
Primula chionantha
Primula chumbiensis
Primula chungensis
Primula chasmophila
Primula clarkei
Primula clusiana
Primula clutterbuckii
Primula cockburniana
Primula concholoba
Primula concinna
Primula conspersa
Primula cortusoides
Primula cuneifolia (wedgeleaf primrose, pixie-eye primrose)
Primula cusickiana (Cusick's primrose)
Primula daonensis
Primula darialica
Primula davidii
Primula deflexa
Primula denticulata (drumstick primrose, Himalayan primrose)
Primula deorum (Rila primrose, Rila cowslip, God's cowslip)
Primula deuteronana
Primula dryadifolia
Primula edgeworthii
Primula egaliksensis (Greenland primrose)
Primula elatior (oxlip, true oxlip, oxslip)
Primula elizabethiae
Primula elongata
Primula erythrocarpa
Primula farinosa (birdseye primrose)
Primula farreriana
Primula fedschenkoi
Primula fenghwaiana[19]
Primula filchnerae
Primula filipes
Primula firmipes
Primula fistulosa
Primula flaccida
Primula floribunda
Primula florindae (Himalayan cowslip, Tibetan cowslip)
Primula forrestii
Primula frondosa

Primula glutinosa
Primula helodoxa
Primula japonica

Primula gambeliana
Primula gemmifera
Primula geraniifolia
Primula giraldiana
Primula glabra
Primula glaucescens
Primula glomerata
Primula glutinosa
Primula gracilenta
Primula gracillipes
Primula griffithii
Primula halleri (long-flowered primrose, Haller's primrose)
Primula helodoxa
Primula hendersonii (broad-leaved shootingstar, Henderson's shootingstar, mosquito-bill, sailor caps)
Primula heucherifolia
Primula hirsuta (stinking primrose)
Primula hookeri
Primula incana (silvery primrose, mealy primrose)
Primula interjacens
Primula involucrata
Primula ioessa
Primula irregularis
Primula japonica (Japanese primrose, Japanese cowslip)
Primula jesoana
Primula jigmediana
Primula juliae (Julia's primrose, purple primrose)
Primula kingii
Primula kisoana
Primula kitaibeliana (Kitaibel's primrose)
Primula klattii
Primula laurentiana (birdseye primrose)
Primula lihengiana[20]

Primula marginata
Primula megaseifolia

Primula listeri
Primula longiscapa
Primula lutea
Primula luteola
Primula macrophylla (largeleaf primrose)
Primula magellanica
Primula malacoides (fairy primrose, baby primrose)
Primula malvacea
Primula marginata (marginate primrose)
Primula megaseifolia
Primula melanantha[21]
Primula melanops
Primula minima (dwarf primrose)
Primula minor
Primula mistassinica (Mistassini primrose)
Primula modesta
Primula mollis
Primula moupinensis[22]

Primula prolifera
Primula rosea
Primula sieboldii

Primula munroi
Primula muscarioides
Primula nipponica
Primula nivalis (snowy primrose)
Primula obconica (poison primrose, German primrose)
Primula orbicularis

Primula veris
Primula vialii
Primula × pubescens

Primula palinuri[23]
Primula parryi (Parry's primrose)
Primula pedemontana
Primula petelotii[19]
Primula petiolaris
Primula pinnatifida
Primula poissonii
Primula polyneura
Primula prenantha
Primula prolifera (glory-of-the-marsh)
Primula pulchella
Primula pulverulenta (mealy cowslip)
Primula pumila (arctic primrose)
Primula reidii
Primula reinii
Primula renifolia
Primula reptans
Primula reticulata
Primula rockii
Primula rosea (Himalayan meadow primrose)
Primula rotundifolia
Primula rusbyi (Rusby's primrose)
Primula sapphirina
Primula saxatilis (rock primrose)
Primula scandinavica[24] (Scandinavian primrose)
Primula scapigera
Primula scotica (Scottish primrose)
Primula secundiflora
Primula septemloba
Primula serratifolia
Primula sheriffii
Primula sieboldii (Japanese primrose)
Primula sikkimensis (Sikkim cowslip)
Primula sinensis (syn. P. praenitens)
Primula sinolisteri
Primula sinomollis
Primula soldanelloides
Primula sonchifolia
Primula souliei
Primula spectabilis[25]
Primula specuicola (alcove primrose, cave-dwelling primrose)
Primula stricta (coastal primrose, strict primrose)
Primula strumosa
Primula suffrutescens (Sierra primrose)
Primula szechuanica
Primula takedana
Primula tanneri
Primula tardiflora[26]
Primula tenella
Primula tenuiloba
Primula tenuituba[16]
Primula tibetica
Primula tschuktschorum (Chukchi primrose)
Primula tyrolensis
Primula vaginata
Primula valentiniana
Primula veris (cowslip)
Primula verticillata[27] (yellow primrose)
Primula vialii (wayside primrose, pagoda primrose, orchid primrose, poker primrose)
Primula villosa
Primula vulgaris (primrose)
Primula waltonii
Primula watsonii
Primula warshenewskiana
Primula whitei
Primula wilsonii
Primula wollastonii (Wollaston's primrose)
Primula wulfeniana (Wulfen's primrose)
Primula xanthopa
Primula yunnanensis
Primula yuparensis

Etymology

The word primula is the Latin feminine diminutive of primus, meaning first (prime), applied to flowers that are among the first to open in spring.[28]
Ecology

Primulas are used as a food plant by the Duke of Burgundy butterfly.[29]
Distribution and habitat

Although there are over 400 species of Primula, about 75% are found in the eastern Himalayan mountain chain and western China (Yunnan Province), constituting a centre of diversity. Other centres of diversity are a western Asian centre (Caucasus, European mountain ranges from the Pyrenees, through the Alps to the Carpathian Mountains), mountains of East Asia and those of western North America. Primula is found in mountainous or higher latitude zones of North America, Europe, and Asia, with extension into South America, Africa (mountains of Ethiopia) and tropical Asia (islands of Java and Sumatra).[5][8] About 25 species occur in North America (represented in five sections).[30]

Primula is found in the humid and moderate climate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, predominantly in the forest belt, plain meadows, Alpine lawns, and nival and meadow tundras.[8]
Garden hybrids and cultivars

Primula species have been extensively cultivated and hybridised, mainly derived from P. elatior, P. juliae, P. veris and P. vulgaris. Polyanthus (often called P. polyantha) is one such group of plants, which has produced a large variety of strains in all colours, usually grown as annuals or biennials and available as seeds or young plants.[31]

Another huge range of cultivars, known as auriculas, are derived from crosses between P. auricula and P. hirsuta (among others). Specialist nurseries and auricula societies[32] support the growing and showing of these choice strains.
AGM cultivars

The following hybrid varieties and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-[33]

'Broadwell Milkmaid' (auri)[34]
Charisma series (prim)[35]
'Clarence Elliott' (auri)[36]
Crescendo Series (poly)
'Crescendo Blue Shades'[37]
'Crescendo Bright Red'[38]
'Crescendo Pink and Rose Shades'[39]
Danova Series (prim)[40]
'Danova Rose'[41]
'Francisca' (poly)[42]
'Guinevere' (poly)[43]
Primula × loiseleurii 'Aire Mist' (auri)[44]
Primula × pubescens (auri)[45]
'Tony' (auri)[46]
'Wanda' (prim)[47]

Hybrids

Primula × kewensis = P. floribunda × P. verticillata (Kew primrose)[27]
Primula × polyantha = P. veris × P. vulgaris (false oxlip, polyanthus primula)[48]
Primula × pubescens = P. hirsuta × P. auricula

References

Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. 606–607.
RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Primula. Flora of North America.
Linnaeus 1753.
Mast et al 2001.
Gilmartin 2015.
Martins et al 2003.
Kovtonyuk & Goncharov 2009.
Weakley, A. S. (2008). "Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and Surrounding Areas". UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Ingwersen, Will (1986) [1978]. Ingwersen's Manual of Alpine Plants. Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-026-0.
Green, Roy (1986) [1976]. Asiatic Primulas. Woking, Surrey, UK: Alpine Garden Society.
Primula: List of Records. Flora of China.
Primula: List of Records. Flora of North America.
GRIN Species Records of Primula. Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
Basak, S. K. and G. G. Maiti. 2000. Primula arunachalensis sp. nov. (Primulaceae) from the Eastern Himalaya. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 51(1) 11-15.
Ming, H. C. and G. Y. Ying. (2003). Two new species of Primula (Primulaceae) from China. Novon 13 196-199.
Xun, G. and F. Rhui-cheng. (2003). Primula calyptrata, a new species in section Carolinella (Primulaceae) from Yunnan, China. Novon 13 193-95.
"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 24 June 2010. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
Hu, C. M. and G. Hao. (2011). New and noteworthy species of Primula (Primulaceae) from China. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68(2) 297.
Li, R. and C. M. Hu. (2009). Primula lihengiana (Primulaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Annales Botanici Fennici 46(2) 130-32
Rankin, David W. H. (2012). "726. Primula Melanantha". Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 29: 18–33. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8748.2012.01768.x.
Rix, Martyn (2005). "529. Primula Moupinensis. Primulaceae". Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 22 (2): 119–123. doi:10.1111/j.1355-4905.2005.00477.x.
"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 10 September 2008. 10 September 2008. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 23 June 2010. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 13 January 2011. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
Chi-Ming, H. (1994). New taxa and combinations in Chinese Primulaceae. Novon 4(2) 103-105.
Primula verticillata (yellow primrose). Archived 2012-09-05 at the Wayback Machine Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Coombes, Allen J. (2012). The A to Z of Plant Names. USA: Timber Press. pp. 312. ISBN 9781604691962.
"UK Butterflies - Larval Foodplants".
Kelso 1991.
Reader's Digest Encyclopedia of Garden Plants & Flowers, 2nd edition. United Kingdom: Reader's Digest Association. 1978.
"Welcome to The National Auricula & Primula Society: Midland & West Section". National Auricula Society. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 81. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
"Primula 'Broadwell Milkmaid'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Primula 'Charisma Series'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Primula 'Clarence Elliott'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula 'Crescendo Blue Shades'". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula 'Crescendo Bright Red'". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula 'Crescendo Pink and Rose Shades'". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula Danova Series". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula 'Danova Rose'". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Primula 'Francisca'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula 'Guinevere'". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Primula × loiseleurii 'Aire Mist'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Primula × pubescens". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Primula 'Tony'". RHS. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Primula 'Wanda'". Retrieved 17 February 2021.

"Primula × polyantha". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.

Bibliography

Linnaeus, Carl (1753). "Primula". Species Plantarum: exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. 1. Stockholm: Impensis Laurentii Salvii. pp. 142–144., see also Species Plantarum
Gilmartin, Philip M. (2015). "On the origins of observations of heterostyly in Primula". New Phytologist. 208 (1): 39–51. doi:10.1111/nph.13558. PMID 26255981.
Kelso, Sylvia (1991). "Taxonomy of Primula Sects. Aleuritia and Armerina in North America". Rhodora. 93 (873): 67–99. JSTOR 23312756.
Kovtonyuk, N. K.; Goncharov, A. A. (June 2009). "Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Primula L. (Primulaceae) inferred from the ITS region sequences of nuclear rDNA". Russian Journal of Genetics. 45 (6): 663–670. doi:10.1134/S1022795409060052. S2CID 30118798.
Martins, L.; Oberprieler, C.; Hellwig, F. H. (2003). "A phylogenetic analysis of Primulaceae s.l. based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequence data". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 237 (1–2): 75–85. doi:10.1007/s00606-002-0258-1. S2CID 43988431.
Mast, Austin R.; Kelso, Sylvia; Richards, A. John; Lang, Daniela J.; Feller, Danielle M. S.; Conti, Elena (2001). "Phylogenetic Relationships in Primula L. and Related Genera (Primulaceae) Based on Noncoding Chloroplast DNA". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 162 (6): 1381–1400. doi:10.1086/323444. JSTOR 323444. S2CID 59929813.
"The American Primrose Society". Retrieved 6 June 2021.

Species
Basak, Sandip Kumar; Maiti, G. G. (2000). "Primula arunachalensis sp. nov. (Primulaceae) from the Eastern Himalaya". Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica. 51 (1): 11–15. doi:10.18942/bunruichiri.KJ00001077444.
Ming, Hu Chi; Ying, Geng Yu (2003). "Two New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from China" (PDF). Novon. 13 (2): 196–199. doi:10.2307/3393518. JSTOR 3393518.
Fu, Kunjun; Ohba, Hideaki; Gilbert, Michael G. (2004). "Primula". Retrieved 4 June 2021., in Flora of China online vol. 15
Little, R. John; McKinney, Landon E. (2003). "Primula". Flora of North America. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
GRIN (2021). "Species of Primula". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service, USDA. Retrieved 6 June 2021.

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