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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Liliaceae
Subfamilia: Calochortoideae
Genus: Prosartes
Species: P. hookeri – P. lanuginosa – P. maculata – P. smithii – P. trachycarpa

Prosartes D.Don, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 48. 1839.

Type species: P. lanuginosa – (Michx.) D.Don

Native distribution areas:

Northern America
Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Eastern Canada
Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming,
North-Central U.S.A.
Minnesota, North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota,
Northeastern U.S.A.
Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia,
Southwestern U.S.A.
Arizona, California, Utah,
South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico,
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition


Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2009 Aug 24 [1].

Vernacular names
English: Roughfruit fairybells, wartberry fairybell

Prosartes, the fairybells,[3] is a North American genus of flowering plants in the lily family.[4]

For several decades plants of this genus were considered part of the otherwise Asian genus Disporum. Studies of morphology and cytology, as well as genetic analysis, show these North American plants to be different from the Asian species, and in 1995 the two groups began to be recognized as distinct genera.[5][4] Prosartes included five species until 2010, when a sixth, Prosartes parvifolia, long considered a variant of Prosartes hookeri, or perhaps a hybrid, was acknowledged as a distinct species.[6]

These plants are rhizomatous herbs with bell-like pendent (hanging) flowers.[4]


Prosartes hookeri - drops of gold - California and Pacific Northwest, plus isolated populations in Black Hills and in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
Prosartes lanuginosa - yellow mandarin or fairybells - Appalachians, Ozarks, Ontario
Prosartes maculata - spotted mandarin - southern Appalachians
Prosartes parvifolia - Siskiyou bells - southwestern Oregon, northwestern California
Prosartes smithii - largeflower fairybells - West Coast from Vancouver Island to San Francisco Bay
Prosartes trachycarpa - roughfruit fairybells - western United States, central + western Canada


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Tropicos, Prosartes D. Don
"Prosartes". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
Flora of North America: Prosartes
Shinwari, Z.K.; Terauchi, R.; Utech, F.H. & Kawano, S. (1994), "Recognition of the New World Disporum Section Prosartes as Prosartes (Liliaceae) Based on the Sequence Data of the rbcL Gene", Taxon, 43 (3): 353–366, doi:10.2307/1222713
Mesler, M., et al. (2010). A resurrection for Siskiyou Bells, Prosartes parvifolia (Liliaceae), a rare Siskiyou Mountains endemic. Madroño 57:2 129-35.
Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution maps

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