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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Prunellinae
Genus: Prunella
Species: P. albanica – P. cretensis – P. grandiflora – P. hyssopifolia – P. laciniata – P. orientalis – P. prunelliformis – P. vulgaris

Nothospecies: P. × bicolor – P. × codinae – P. × gentianifolia – P. × intermedia – P. × surrecta
Name

Prunella L., Sp. Pl. 2: 600 (1753).

Type species: Prunella vulgaris L., Sp. Pl.: 600 (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Brumella Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754)
Prunellopsis Kudô, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 34: 181 (1920)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Føroyar, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden.
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Africa
Northern Africa
Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia.
Macaronesia
Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira.
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, Buryatiya, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya.
Russian Far East
Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin.
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
China
China South-Central, Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, Qinghai, China Southeast, Tibet, Xinjiang.
Mongolia
Mongolia.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan.
Asia-Tropical
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya.
Indo-China
Vietnam.
Northern America
Subarctic America
Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.
Eastern Canada
Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isle, Québec.
Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Ontario, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.
North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Islands, Vermont, West Virginia.
Southwestern U.S.A.
Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.
South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico, Texas.
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia.
Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
Costa Rica, Guatemala.
Caribbean
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 600.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Prunella in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 March 24. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Prunella in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 March 24. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Prunella. Published online. Accessed: 24 March 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Prunella. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 March 24.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Boğazotu
беларуская: Чорнагалоў
čeština: černohlávek
dansk: Brunelle
Deutsch: Braunellen
dolnoserbski: Bruna
English: Selfheal
فارسی: پرونلا
suomi: Niittyhumalat
français: Brunelle
Gaeilge: Duán ceannchosach
hornjoserbsce: Jězončik
magyar: Gyíkfű
日本語: ウツボグサ属
ქართული: გობისცხვირა
қазақша: Топырақбас
lietuvių: Juodgalvė
Nederlands: Brunel
polski: Głowienka
русский: Черноголовка
slovenčina: čiernohlávok
svenska: Brunörter
українська: Суховершки

Prunella is a genus of herbaceous plants in the family Lamiaceae, also known as self-heals, heal-all, or allheal for their use in herbal medicine.

Habitat

Most are native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but Prunella vulgaris (the Common Self-heal) is Holarctic in distribution, occurring in North America as well, and is a common lawn weed. Prunellas are low-growing plants, and thrive in moist wasteland and grass, spreading rapidly to cover the ground. They are members of the mint family and have the square stem common to mints.[1][2][3]
Biological descriptions

The common name "self-heal" derives from the use of some species to treat a range of minor disorders. Self-heal can be grown from seed, or by dividing clumps in spring or autumn.

Species[1]

Prunella albanica Pénzes - Albania
Prunella × bicolor Beck - parts of Europe (P. grandiflora × P. laciniata)
Prunella × codinae Sennen - Spain (P. hyssopifolia × P. laciniata)
Prunella cretensis Gand. - Crete
Prunella × gentianifolia Pau - Spain (P. hyssopifolia × P. vulgaris)
Prunella grandiflora (L.) Scholler - central + southern Europe from Caucasus to Russia; Caucasus
Prunella hyssopifolia L. - Spain, France, Italy, Morocco
Prunella × intermedia Link - central + southwestern Europe (P. laciniata × P. vulgaris)
Prunella laciniata (L.) L - central + southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East
Prunella orientalis Bornm. - Turkey, Syria
Prunella prunelliformis (Maxim.) Makino - Japan
Prunella × surrecta Dumort. - central + southwestern Europe (P. grandiflora × P. vulgaris)
Prunella vulgaris L. - widespread in Europe, North Africa, Asia, North America; naturalized in New Zealand parts of South America

Subspecies are[4]

Prunella vulgaris ssp. aleutica (Fernald) Hultén – Aleutian selfheal
Prunella vulgaris ssp. lanceolata (W. Bartram) Hultén – lance selfheal
Prunella vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (L.) – common selfheal

Uses
Traditional medicine
Dried Prunella
Traditional Chinese 夏枯草
Simplified Chinese 夏枯草
Transcriptions

In the Pacific Northwest, its juice was used by the Quinault and the Quileute on boils.[5] They also used the whole plant to treat cuts and inflammations.[6] Ointments can be made by fixing[clarification needed] the plant with grease. Dried Prunella (Chinese: 夏枯草) is used to make a herbal drink. Prunella is also used for halitosis, especially when combined with other herbs (e.g. perilla, field mint, etc.). [1]
Food uses

The mildly bitter leaves are also good as salad greens. Prunella species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora albitarsella.
As a health supplement

Prunella vulgaris is used as an ingredient in some bodybuilding supplements.
References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 134 夏枯草 xia ku cao Prunella vulgaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 600. 1753.
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Prunella includes photos plus range maps for Europe + North America
"Prunella vulgaris L." www.itis.gov. ITIS. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
Plant Fact Sheet
"Prunella spike History..." Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved 2017-06-02.

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

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