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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Spiraeoideae
Tribus: Amygdaleae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenera: P. subg. Amygdalus - P. subg. Cerasus - P. subg. Emplectocladus - P. subg. Prunus - Unassigned Prunus

Species overview:

A

P. aestiva - P. affinis - P. afghana - P. africana - P. agrestis - P. aitchisonii - P. alaica - P. albicaulis - P. alleghaniensis - P. aloocha - P. amarella - P. ambigua - P. amelanchier - P. amelanchieriflora - P. americana - P. ampla - P. amplifolia - P. amygdaliformis - P. amygdalina - P. amygdalopersica - P. amygdalus - P. anadenia - P. anceps - P. andersonii - P. angustifolia - P. angustissima - P. annularis - P. anomala - P. antilibanotica - P. antiqua - P. apetala - P. apiana - P. apiculatus - P. apodantha - P. approximata - P. aproniana - P. apyrena - P. arabica - P. arbascensis - P. arborea - P. arduennensis - P. argentea - P. argentinensis - P. arguta - P. arkansana - P. armeniaca - P. armenica - P. armenioides - P. arnoldiana - P. aspera - P. aubertiana - P. aucubaefolia - P. augustana - P. aureliana - P. austera - P. australis - P. austriaca - P. autumnalis - P. avium - P. axitliana

B

P. baccata - P. bakti - P. balansae - P. baldschuanica - P. baldshuanica - P. ballota - P. ballotta - P. barbata - P. batalinii - P. beccarii - P. beni-fumotoii - P. besseyi - P. betancurii - P. bicolor - P. bifera - P. biferum - P. bifrons - P. bigarella - P. blireiana - P. blumii - P. boehmeri - P. bokhariensis - P. bonatii - P. borealis - P. bornmuelleri - P. botan - P. brachybotrya - P. brachypetala - P. brachystachya - P. bracteata - P. bracteopadus - P. brahuica - P. brasiliensis - P. brassii - P. brevifolia - P. brigantiaca - P. brigantina - P. brignola - P. brignoniensis - P. brittoniana - P. brutia - P. bucharica - P. budae - P. buergeri - P. buergeriana - P. bungei - P. buxifolia

C

P. caerulea - P. californica - P. calvellana - P. calycina - P. calycosa - P. campanulata - P. canadensis - P. candicans - P. canescens - P. cantabrigiensis - P. capricida - P. caproniana - P. carcharias - P. carduchorum - P. carmesina - P. carolina - P. carolinae - P. caroliniana - P. cartilaginea - P. caspica - P. catalaunensis - P. catesbaei - P. catharinea - P. caucasica - P. caudata - P. cavaleriei - P. cavellana - P. cerasa - P. ceraseidos - P. cerasia - P. cerasiana - P. cerasifera - P. cerasiflora - P. cerasifructus - P. cerasoides - P. cerasus - P. cercocarpifolia - P. cerea - P. cereola - P. ceylanica - P. chamissoana - P. changyangensis - P. chapronii - P. chiapensis - P. chicasa - P. chinensis - P. chlorocarpa - P. chorasanica - P. chorassanica - P. choreiana - P. cineraceus - P. cinerascens - P. cistena - P. clarofolia - P. claudiana - P. clementis - P. coccinea - P. coccumilia - P. cochinchinensis - P. cocomilia - P. cocumilio - P. colchica - P. communis - P. compacta - P. compressa - P. conadenia - P. concinna - P. conradinae - P. consobrina - P. consociiflora - P. cornifolia - P. cornuta - P. cortapico - P. corymbulosa - P. costata - P. crassifolia - P. crassipes - P. crataegifolia - P. crenulata - P. crossotolepis - P. cuneifolia - P. cupaniana - P. cyathicalyx - P. cyclamina - P. cyclopetala

D

P. damascena - P. damsonia - P. darvasica - P. dasycarpa - P. davidiana - P. dawyckensis - P. debilis - P. declinata - P. decora - P. deformis - P. demissa - P. densa - P. densiflora - P. depressa - P. desvauxii - P. detrita - P. diamantina - P. diapraea - P. dictyoneura - P. dielsiana - P. dimorphadenia - P. discadenia - P. discolor - P. discreta - P. divaricata - P. diversifolia - P. dolabriformis - P. dolichadenia - P. dolichobotrys - P. domestica - P. douglasii - P. droseracea - P. dubia - P. duclouxii - P. duerinckii - P. dulcis - P. dumetorum - P. dumosa - P. dunbarii - P. dunniana - P. duplex - P. duracina - P. durasina - P. dussii

E

P. eburnea - P. edentata - P. effusa - P. elaeagnifolia - P. elegans - P. elliptica - P. emarginata - P. eminens - P. enucleata - P. erecta - P. erectus - P. eremophila - P. ericaeflora - P. ericiflora - P. eriogyna - P. ernestii - P. erubescens - P. erythrocarpa - P. erythroxylon - P. espinozana - P. exigua

F

P. falcata - P. fallax - P. fasciculata - P. fastigiata - P. fenzliana - P. ferganensis - P. ferganica - P. feriarum - P. ferruginea - P. fimbriata - P. flava - P. flavescens - P. floribunda - P. floridula - P. fontanesiana - P. forbesii - P. formosa - P. formosana - P. fortis - P. fortunensis - P. foveata - P. fragrans - P. fremontii - P. fruticans - P. fruticosa - P. fukudana - P. fultonensis - P. furum -

G

P. galatensis - P. gallica - P. gazelle-peninsulae - P. geniculata - P. gentryi - P. germanica - P. gharbiana - P. gigantea - P. gilanica - P. giraldiana - P. glabra - P. glabrifolia - P. glandulifolia - P. glandulosa - P. glauca - P. glaucifolia - P. glauciphylla - P. glomerata - P. glyptocarya - P. gondouinii - P. gracilifolia - P. gracilis - P. graeca - P. grandifolia - P. grandissima - P. graphica - P. grayana - P. griffithii - P. grisea - P. guanaiensis - P. guatemalensis - P. gymnodonta

H

P. hakodatensis - P. hattan - P. hausmannii - P. haussknechti - P. haussknechtii - P. havardii - P. helenae - P. helvetica - P. henryi - P. herincquiana - P. herthae - P. heterocarpa - P. heteropetala - P. hiberniflora - P. hiemalis - P. hierochuntica - P. himalaica - P. hintonii - P. hirtifolia - P. hirtipes - P. hispanica - P. hixa - P. hookeri - P. hortensis - P. hortulana - P. hosoii - P. hosseusii - P. huantensis - P. humilis - P. hungarica - P. hupehensis - P. husmannii - P. hyemalis

I

P. ignota - P. ilicifolia - P. imanishii - P. imperialis - P. incana - P. incisa - P. inermis - P. insignis - P. insititia - P. integerrima - P. integrifolia - P. intermedia - P. introrsa - P. involucrata - P. iranica - P. ishidoyana - P. italica - P. itosakura - P. iwozana

J

P. jacquemontii - P. jajarkotensis - P. japonica - P. javanica - P. javorkae - P. jenkinsii - P. jesohortensis - P. jezohortensis - P. juddii - P. jugata - P. juliana - P. junghuhniana

K

P. kansuensis - P. kawakamii - P. keiozakura - P. keredjensis - P. kinabaluensis - P. kingdonwardii - P. kiusiana - P. knudsoni - P. kobukuzakura - P. koelzii - P. kohigan - P. koidzumii - P. kolomikta - P. koraiensis - P. korolkowii - P. korshinskyi - P. koshiensis - P. kotschyi - P. kuramica - P. kurdica - P. kurilensis

L

P. lamottii - P. lamponga - P. lanceolata - P. lancilimba - P. latidentata - P. latifolia - P. laucheana - P. laurifolia - P. laurocerasus - P. laxiflora - P. laxinervis - P. ledebouriana - P. leiocarpa - P. leucocarpa - P. leucophylla - P. lichoana - P. ligerina - P. ligustrina - P. linearipetalus - P. lineata - P. litigiosa - P. littoralis - P. lloydii - P. lobulata - P. longicaudata - P. lucens - P. lundelliana - P. lusitanica - P. lutea - P. lutescens - P. lycioides - P. lyonii

M

P. maackii - P. macedonica - P. macgregoriana - P. macradenia - P. macrophylla - P. magnieri - P. mahaleb - P. majestica - P. makinoana - P. malayana - P. malifolia - P. maliformis - P. mandshurica - P. marasca - P. maritima - P. marsupialis - P. martabanica - P. martrinii - P. maru - P. matudai - P. matuurai - P. maureri - P. mauriniana - P. maximowiczii - P. media - P. mensarum - P. mespilifolia - P. mexicana - P. meyeri - P. micrantha - P. microcarpa - P. microlepis - P. micromeloides - P. micropetala - P. microphylla - P. microstigma - P. minutiflora - P. miqueliana - P. mira - P. mirabilis - P. mississipi - P. mitjurinii - P. mohacsyana - P. moldavica - P. mollis - P. moniwana - P. montana - P. monticola - P. moriokapendula - P. moritziana - P. mugus - P. multiglandulosa - P. mume - P. munsoniana - P. muris - P. murrayana - P. myrobolana - P. myrtellina - P. myrtifolia

N

P. nachichevanica - P. nachitschevanica - P. nana - P. napaulensis - P. neglecta - P. nepalensis - P. nepaulensis - P. neustriensis - P. nicotianaefolia - P. nigra - P. nigrella - P. nigricans - P. niko-montana - P. nipponica - P. nitens - P. nitida - P. nitidifolia - P. nitidissima - P. normalis - P. novoleontis - P. nubium - P. nucipersica - P. nudiflora

O

P. oblonga - P. oblongifolia - P. obovata - P. occidentalis - P. ocellata - P. ochoterenae - P. odorata - P. ohiraensis - P. oleaginosa - P. oleifolia - P. oligantha - P. omissa - P. oocarpa - P. opaca - P. oregana - P. orientalis - P. orthosepala - P. ovalifolia - P. ovalis - P. ovata - P. oviformis - P. oxycarpa - P. oxyodonta - P. oxyphylla

P

P. pachyclada - P. padifolia - P. padus - P. pallasiana - P. palmeri - P. paniculata - P. papuana - P. paracerasus - P. parviflora - P. patentipila - P. pauciflora - P. pearcei - P. pectinata - P. peduncularis - P. pendula - P. pensylvanica - P. perdigona - P. persica - P. persicifolia - P. persico-amygdala - P. persicoides - P. pertigona - P. petraea - P. petunnikowii - P. petzoldii - P. phyllopoda - P. pictorum - P. pilosiuscula - P. pinetorum - P. pissardii - P. planteriensis - P. plantierensis - P. platyphylla - P. platysepala - P. pleiantha - P. pleiocerasus - P. plena - P. pleuradenia - P. pleuroptera - P. plurinervis - P. podadenia - P. podolica - P. podperae - P. pogonostyla - P. poiretiana - P. pojarkovii - P. pollardii - P. polyandra - P. polymorpha - P. polystachya - P. polytricha - P. potosina - P. praecox - P. praedura - P. prionophylla - P. prostrata - P. provincialis - P. pruna - P. pruneauliana - P. prunella - P. prunifolia - P. pruninosa - P. pseudaffinis - P. pseudo-adenopoda - P. pseudoarmenica - P. pseudocerasus - P. pseudoclaudiana - P. pseudoprostrata - P. pubescens - P. pubigera - P. puddum - P. pudibunda - P. pulchella - P. pulgarensis - P. pullei - P. pumila - P. pumilio - P. punctata - P. pusilliflora - P. pygma - P. pygmaea - P. pyramidalis

R

P. ramburii - P. ravenii - P. rechingeri - P. reclinata - P. recta - P. recurviflora - P. reflexa - P. regeliana - P. regia - P. rehderiana - P. reticulata - P. reverchonii - P. rhamnifructa - P. rhamnoides - P. rigida - P. riomensis - P. rivularis - P. rosea - P. rosebudii - P. rosiflora - P. rossiana - P. rotunda - P. rotundifolia - P. rubella - P. rubescens - P. rubicunda - P. rubicundus - P. rubiginosa - P. rubra - P. rufa - P. rufoides - P. rugosa - P. rugulosa - P. ruiziana - P. rustica - P. rusticana - P. rybini

S

P. sachalinensis - P. saihoziensis - P. sakabai - P. salasii - P. salicifolia - P. salicina - P. saltuum - P. salzeri - P. samydoides - P. sana - P. sanctaecatharinae - P. sargentii - P. sativa - P. saxicola - P. schiedeana - P. schlechteri - P. schmittii - P. schneideriana - P. schultzeae - P. sclerophylla - P. scoparia - P. scopulorum - P. scortechinii - P. sefinensis - P. sellowii - P. semperflorens - P. sempervirens - P. sepivaga - P. serotina - P. serratifolia - P. serrula - P. serrulata - P. setulosa - P. shirataki - P. shiro-fumotoii - P. shiuri - P. sibirica - P. sieboldii - P. siltepecana - P. silvatica - P. silvestris - P. simonii - P. sinensis - P. skinneri - P. skutchii - P. slavinii - P. sogdiana - P. sontagiae - P. sorbus - P. spartioides - P. spatulata - P. speciosa - P. spectabilis - P. sphaerica - P. sphaerocarpa - P. spicata - P. spinosa - P. spinosissima - P. spiraeiflora - P. spiraeifolia - P. spontalis - P. sprengeri - P. ssiori - P. stacei - P. staminata - P. stellipila - P. stenopetala - P. stenophyllus - P. stepposa - P. stipulacea - P. stipulata - P. strobolifera - P. suaveolens - P. subcordata - P. subcoriacea - P. subcorymbosa - P. subcylindracea - P. subglabra - P. subhirtella - P. subrotunda - P. subrotundifolia - P. subvillosa - P. sultana - P. susquehanae - P. sweginzowii - P. sylvatica - P. sylvestris - P. syodoi - P. syriaca - P. szechuanica

T

P. tadzhikistanica - P. taiwaniana - P. tajimensis - P. takasagomontana - P. takenakae - P. takesimensis - P. takinoensis - P. tangutica - P. taquetii - P. tarda - P. tartarea - P. tatsienensis - P. tawakonia - P. tenella - P. tenerrima - P. tenuiflora - P. tenuifolia - P. tetradenia - P. texana - P. thibetica - P. tikalana - P. tilliaefolia - P. tinctoria - P. tobagenzoana - P. tomentosa - P. toriwii - P. tortuosa - P. transarisanensis - P. translucens - P. trichamygdalus - P. trichantha - P. trichocarpa - P. trichopetala - P. triflora - P. trifolia - P. triloba - P. tuberculata - P. tucumanensis - P. turcomanica - P. turfosa - P. turneriana - P. turonensis - P. twymaniana

U

P. ulei - P. ulmifolia - P. umbellata - P. urotaenia - P. ursina - P. urumiensis - P. ussuriensis - P. utahensis - P. uyekii

V

P. vachuschtii - P. valida - P. vana - P. vaniotii - P. vapincensis - P. varactensis - P. varia - P. variabilis - P. vaughaniana - P. vavilovii - P. venulosa - P. venusta - P. verrucosa - P. versicolor - P. versteeghii - P. villegasiana - P. vinaria - P. violacea - P. virens - P. virescens - P. virgata - P. virginalis - P. virginea - P. virginiana - P. vitrea - P. vulgaris

W

P. walkeri - P. wallaceana - P. wardii - P. watsonii - P. wattii - P. webbii - P. wildeniana - P. williamsii - P. wurdackii

X

P. xanthocarpos

X

P. yedoensis - P. yunnanensis

Z

P. zappeyana - P. zinggii - P. zumbra

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Česky: Slivoň
Eesti: Toomingas
日本語: サクラ属
Українська: Слива

Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. There are around 430 species spread throughout the northern temperate regions of the globe. Many members of the genus are widely cultivated for fruit and ornament.


Botany

Members of the genus can be deciduous or evergreen. A few species have spiny stems. The leaves are simple, alternate, usually lanceolate, unlobed, and often with nectaries on the leaf stalk. The flowers are usually white to pink, sometimes red, with five petals and five sepals. There are numerous stamens. Flowers are borne singly, or in umbels of two to six or sometimes more on racemes. The fruit is a fleshy drupe (a "prune") with a single relatively large hard coated seed (a "stone").[2]

Within the rose family Rosaceae, it was traditionally placed as a subfamily, the Prunoideae (or Amygdaloideae), but was sometimes placed in its own family, the Prunaceae (or Amygdalaceae). More recently it has become apparent that Prunus evolved from within subfamily Spiraeoideae.[1]

Classification

Linnean classification

In 1737 Linnaeus used four genera to include the species of modern Prunus—Amygdalus, Cerasus, Prunus and Padus—but simplified it to Amygdalus and Prunus in 1758.[3] Since then the various genera of Linnaeus and others have become subgenera and sections, as it is clearer that all the species are more closely related. Liberty Hyde Bailey says:[4]

"The numerous forms grade into each other so imperceptibly and inextricably that the genus cannot be readily broken up into species."


Modern classification

A recent DNA study of 48 species concluded that Prunus is monophyletic and is descended from some Eurasian ancestor.[5]

Historical treatments break the genus up into several different genera, but this segregation is not currently widely recognised other than at the subgeneric rank. ITIS recognises just the single genus Prunus, with an open list of species,[6] all of which are shown below, under "Species".[7]

One standard modern treatment of the subgenera derives from the work of Alfred Rehder in 1940. Rehder hypothesized five subgenera: Amygdalus, Prunus, Cerasus, Padus and Laurocerasus.[8] To them C. Ingram added Lithocerasus.[9] The six subgenera are described as follows:

* Prunus subgenera:
o Subgenus Amygdalus: almonds and peaches. Axillary buds in threes (vegetative bud central, two flower buds to sides). Flowers in early spring, sessile or nearly so, not on leafed shoots. Fruit with a groove along one side; stone deeply grooved. Type species Prunus dulcis (Almond).
o Subgenus Prunus: plums and apricots. Axillary buds solitary. Flowers in early spring stalked, not on leafed shoots. Fruit with a groove along one side; stone rough. Type species Prunus domestica (Plum).
o Subgenus Cerasus: cherries. Axillary buds single. Flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots. Fruit not grooved; stone smooth. Type species Prunus cerasus (Sour cherry).
o Subgenus Lithocerasus. Axillary buds in threes. Flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots. Fruit not grooved; stone smooth. Type species Prunus pumila (Sand cherry).
o Subgenus Padus: bird cherries. Axillary buds single. Flowers in late spring in racemes on leafy shoots, short-stalked. Fruit not grooved; stone smooth. Type species Prunus padus (European bird cherry).
o Subgenus Laurocerasus: cherry-laurels. Axillary buds single. Flowers in early spring in racemes, not on leafed shoots, short-stalked. Fruit not grooved; stone smooth. Mostly evergreen (all the other subgenera are deciduous). Type species Prunus laurocerasus (European cherry-laurel).

Another recent DNA study[8] found that Amygdaloideae can be divided into two clades: Prunus-Maddenia, with Maddenia basal within Prunus, and Exochorda-Oemleria-Prinsepia, but further refinement[1] shows that Exochorda-Oemleria-Prinsepia is somewhat separate from Prunus-Maddenia-Pygeum, and that, like subfamily Maloideae, all of these genera appear to be best considered within subfamily Spiraeoideae. Prunus can be divided into two clades: Amygdalus-Prunus and Cerasus-Laurocerasus-Padus. Yet another study adds Emplectocladus as a subgenus to the former.[10]

Uses


The genus Prunus includes the almond, apricot, cherry, peach and plum, all of which have cultivars developed for commercial fruit and nut production. The edible part of the almond is the seed; the almond fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. Many other species are occasionally cultivated or used for their seed and fruit.

There are also a number of species, hybrids, and cultivars grown as ornamental plants, usually for their profusion of flowers, sometimes for ornamental foliage and shape, occasionally for their bark. These ornamentals include the group that may be collectively called flowering cherries (including sakura, the Japanese flowering cherries).

Other species such as blackthorn are grown for hedging, game cover, and other utilitarian purposes.

The wood of some species is a minor and specialised timber (cherry wood), usually from larger tree species such as the wild cherry.

Many species produce an aromatic resin from wounds in the trunk; this is sometimes used medicinally. There are other minor uses including dye production.

Pygeum is a herbal remedy containing extracts from the bark of Prunus africana. It is used as to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by inflammation in patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Because of their considerable value as both food and ornamental plants, many Prunus species have been introduced to parts of the world to which they are not native, some becoming naturalised.

Prunus species are food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths); see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus.

Toxicity

Many species are cyanogenic; that is, they contain compounds called cyanogenic glucosides, notably amygdalin, which, on hydrolysis, yield hydrogen cyanide (HCN).[11] Although the fruits of some may be edible by humans and livestock (in addition to the ubiquitous fructivory of birds), seeds, leaves and other parts may be toxic, some highly.[12] The plants contain no more than trace amounts of HCN but on decomposition after crushing and exposure to air or on digestion poisonous amounts may be generated. The trace amounts may give a characteristic taste ("bitter almond") with increasing bitterness in larger quantities, less tolerable to people than to birds, which habitually feed on specific fruits.

Species

The lists below are incomplete, but include most of the better known species.

Eastern Hemisphere

Prunus africana
Prunus apetala
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus bifrons
Prunus buergeriana
Prunus campanulata
Prunus canescens
Prunus cerasifera
Prunus cerasoides
Prunus cerasus
Prunus ceylanica
Prunus cocomilia
Prunus cornuta
Prunus crassifolia
Prunus davidiana
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus fruticosa
Prunus geniculata
Prunus glandulosa
Prunus gracilis
Prunus grayana
Prunus incana
Prunus incisa
Prunus insititia
Prunus italica
Prunus jacquemontii
Prunus japonica
Prunus korshinskyi
Prunus laurocerasus
Prunus lusitanica
Prunus maackii
Prunus mahaleb
Prunus mandshurica
Prunus maximowiczii
Prunus minutiflora
Prunus mume
Prunus murrayana
Prunus myrtifolia
Prunus nipponica
Prunus occidentalis
Prunus padus
Prunus persica
Prunus pleuradenia
Prunus pseudocerasus
Prunus prostrata
Prunus rivularis
Prunus salicina
Prunus sargentii
Prunus serrula
Prunus serrulata
Prunus sibirica
Prunus simonii
Prunus sogdiana
Prunus speciosa
Prunus spinosa
Prunus spinulosa
Prunus ssiori
Prunus subhirtella
Prunus tenella
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus triloba
Prunus ursina
Prunus vachuschtii
Prunus verecunda
Prunus × yedoensis
Prunus zippeliana
Prunus laxinervis

Western Hemisphere

Prunus alabamensis
Prunus alleghaniensis
Prunus americana
Prunus andersonii
Prunus angustifolia
Prunus besseyi
Prunus buxifolia
Prunus caroliniana
Prunus emarginata
Prunus eremophila
Prunus fasciculata
Prunus fremontii
Prunus havardii
Prunus hortulana
Prunus huantensis
Prunus ilicifolia
Prunus integrifolia
Prunus maritima
Prunus mexicana
Prunus munsoniana
Prunus nigra
Prunus pensylvanica
Prunus pumila
Prunus rigida
Prunus serotina
Prunus sphaerocarpa
Prunus subcordata
Prunus texana
Prunus triloba
Prunus umbellata
Prunus virginiana

Palaeobotanical models
The development sequence of a nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7½ month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer.

The earliest known fossil Prunus are wood, drupe and seed and a leaf from the middle Eocene of the Princeton Chert of British Columbia.[13] Using the known age as calibration data, recent research by Oh and Potter[14] reconstructs a partial phylogeny of some Rosaceae from a number of nucleotide sequences. According to this study Prunus and its "sister clade" Maloideae (apple subfamily) diverged at 44.3 mya (or 43 million years ago, well before most of the Primates existed). This date is within the Lutetian, or older middle Eocene.[15] Stokey and Wehr report:[13] "The Eocene was a time of rapid evolution and diversification in Angiosperm families such as the Rosaceae ...."

The Princeton finds are among a large number of Angiosperm fossils from the Okanagan Highlands dating to the late early and middle Eocene. Crataegus is found at three locations: Mcabee, Republic and Princeton, while Prunus is found at those locations and Quilchena and Chuchua. A recent recapitulation of research on the topic[16] reports that the Rosaceae were more diverse at higher altitudes. The Okanagan formations date to as early as 52 mya, but the 44.3 mya data, which is approximate, depending on assumptions, might still apply. The authors state: "... the McAbee flora records a diverse early middle Eocene angiosperm-dominated forest."[17]

Etymology

The Online Etymology Dictionary presents the customary derivations of plum[18] and prune[19] from Latin prūnum,[20] the plum fruit. The tree is prūnus;[21] however,[clarification needed] Pliny also uses prūnus silvestris to mean the blackthorn. The word is not native Latin, but is a loan from Greek προῦνον (prounon) which is a variant of προῦμνον (proumnon),[22] origin unknown. The tree is προύμνη (proumnē).[23] Most dictionaries follow Hoffman, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, in making some form of the word a loan from a pre-Greek language of Asia Minor, related to Phrygian.

The first use of Prunus as a genus name was by Linnaeus in Hortus Cliffortianus of 1737, which went on to become Species Plantarum. In that work Linnaeus attributes the word to "Varr.", who it is assumed must be Marcus Terentius Varro.

Notes

1. ^ a b c Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43.
2. ^ European Garden Flora; vol. 4
3. ^ Linnaeus Carolus; Sprengel, Curtius (editor) (1830). Genera Plantarum Editio Nona (Genera plantarum, ninth edition). Gottingen: Dieterich page 402 for Amygdalus, page 403 for Prunus..
4. ^ Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1898). Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits. New York: The MacMillan Company. p. 181.
5. ^ Bortiri, Esteban; and others (2001). "Phylogeny and Systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as Determined by Sequence Analysis of ITS and the Chloroplast trnL-trnF Spacer DNA". Systematic Botany 26 (4): 797–807. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0363-6445%28200110%2F12%2926%3A4%3C797%3APASOP%28%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage . Abstract and first page for free.
6. ^ Do a search in the ITIS database on the scientific name Prunus for its current list.
7. ^ Other established species appear as well, which for whatever reasons are not yet in ITIS.
8. ^ a b Lee, Sangtae; Wen, Jun (2001). "A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA". American Journal of Botany 88 (1): 150–160. doi:10.2307/2657135. PMID 11159135. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/88/1/150?ck=nck#T1.
9. ^ Okie, William (July 2003). "Stone Fruits". Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts.
10. ^ Bortiri, Esteban; Oh, Sang-Hun; Gao, Fang-You; Potter, Dan (2002). "The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus (Rosaceae)" (PDF). American Journal of Botany 89 (11): 1697–1708. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1697. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/reprint/89/10/1697.pdf. The specification is Emplectocladus (Torr.) Sargent
11. ^ Armstrong, E. Frankland (1913). "Glucosides". In Davis, W.A.; Sadtler, Samuel S.. Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, etc. (Fourth ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co.. p. 102. "Amygdalin ... is found in bitter almonds and in the kernels of peaches, cherries, plums, apples, etc. It is hydrolysed by emulsin to hydrogen cyanide, usually in their leaves and seeds"
12. ^ Cook, Laurence Martin; Callow, Robert S. (1999). Genetic and evolutionary diversity: the sport of nature (2nd ed.). Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. p. 135.
13. ^ a b Stockey & Wehr, pp 234, 241, 245.
14. ^ Oh, Sang-Hun; Potter, Daniel (2005). "Molecular phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of tribe Neillieae (Rosaceae) using DNA sequences of cpDNA, rDNA, and LEAFY1". American Journal of Botany 92: 179–192. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.1.179. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/92/1/179.
15. ^ A date of 76 mya is given for Rosaceae, which is within the late Cretaceous.
16. ^ Dillhoff & Leopold (2005), pp 151–166
17. ^ Dillhoff & Leopold (2005), p 165.
18. ^ "plum". Online Etymological Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=plum.
19. ^ "prune". Online Etymological Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=prune.
20. ^ "prūnum". Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.6:1:2066.latinsmall.
21. ^ "prūnus". Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.6:1:2067.latinsmall.
22. ^ "προῦμνον". Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library. http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.59:3:144.lsj.
23. ^ "προύμνη". Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library. http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.59:3:143.lsj.


References

* Dillhoff, Richard M; Leopold, Estella B.; Manchester, Steven R. (February 2005). "The McAbee flora of British Columbia and its relation to the Early-Middle Eocene Okanagan Highlands flora of the Pacific Northwest" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 42 (2): 151. doi:10.1139/e04-084. http://www.evolvingearth.org/learnearthscience/mcabeefeb2005cjes.pdf.
* Stockey, Ruth A.; Wehr, Wesley C. (1996). "Flowering Plants in and around Eocene Lakes of the Interior". In Ludvigson, Rolf. Life in Stone: a Natural History of British Columbia's Fossils. Vancouver: UBCPess. ISBN 0-7748-0578-1 .

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