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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Pedaliaceae
Genus: Pterodiscus
Species: P. angustifolius – P. aurantiacus – P. brasiliensis – P. coeruleus – P. kellerianus – P. ruspolii – P. speciosus
Name

Pterodiscus Hook. Bot. Mag. 70: 4117. (1844)

Type species: Pterodiscus speciosus Hook. Bot. Mag. 70: , t. 4117. (1844)

References

Hooker, J.D. (1844) Botanical Magazine 70: 4117. BHL
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Pterodiscus. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 2 2015.
Tropicos.org 2015. Pterodiscus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Apr. 2.

Pterodiscus is a genus of plant in the Pedaliaceae family comprising several species with a native range from Ethiopia to S. Africa.[2] The range passes through the countries of Angola, Botswana, , Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[3] Plus it is found also within the Provinces of South Africa in Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Northern Provinces.

The genus was originally established by William Jackson Hooker from one species found in South Africa, Pterodiscus speciosus.[4] The species was first published and described by William Jackson Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. Vol.70 on table 4117 in 1844.[5]

The genus is accepted by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service but they do not list any species.[1]

General description

They are perennial herbs,[6] that have a thick caudex (rootstock),[6] that is either part of an underground tuber which is as wide as the above ground caudex,[7] or the underground tuber can be wider and broader.[8] Overall the plant does not reach more than 30 cm (12 in) high. From the caudex, an unbranched stem arises, normally every year.[7] The leaves are sub-succulent and fleshy,[8] and very variable in shape,[7] ranging from linear to strap-shaped,[8] undulate to broadly oblong.[7] They are dentate (toothed), pinnatilobed, pinnatifid (meaning pinnately dissected to the central vein) or pinnatipartite.[7][8] The solitary flowers arise from the leaf axils,[7][8] which come in a range of colours, from yellow,[7] (sometimes suffused with purple,[8]) brilliant orange, red,[7] wine-red, purple to dark purple.[8] The calyx is small.[7][8] The corolla is funnel-shaped or narrowly cylindrical, often slightly gibbous (rounded protuberance) at the base with a reduced spur.[7][8] They have 4 stamens and a bilocular (or 2 compartmented) ovary).[7][8] The fruit (or seed capsule) is indehiscent (does not split down the side),[7][8] instead it has 4 broad longitudinal, prominent wings (which are parchment-like). The upper part of the capsule is beak-like.[7][8] The seeds are variable in both shape and structure of the testa.[7]
Etymology

The genera name is derived from the Greek word ptero meaning 'winged' and the Latin word discus meaning 'disc'.[6][9] This refers to the fruit structure,[6] a flattened fruit that bears wings.[4]
Species

There were 18 named species in tropical and South Africa,[10] but most of these were found to be synonyms of other species.[4]

Known species include (according to Kew,[3] and Tropicos[11]):

Pterodiscus angustifolius Engl.
Pterodiscus aurantiacus Welw.[10]
Pterodiscus brasiliensis (J.Gay ex DC.) Asch.
Pterodiscus coeruleus Chiov.
Pterodiscus kellerianus Schinz.
Pterodiscus ruspolii Engl.
Pterodiscus speciosus Hook.[10]

Pterodiscus saccatus S.Moore and Pterodiscus undulatus Baker are listed by Hans-Dieter Ihlenfeldt,[4] and Pterodiscus ngamicus N.E.Br. ex Stapf by Flora of Botswana.[10] Also P. somaliensis Baker ex Stapf, P. wellbyi Stapf, P. heterophyllus Stapf, and P. purpureus Chiov. are listed as synonyms in 2001.[4]

While Encyclopedia of Life, lists 14 species including; Pterodiscus angustifolius Engl., Pterodiscus aurantiacus Welw., Pterodiscus cinnabarinus Peckover, Pterodiscus coeruleus Chiov., Pterodiscus elliottii Baker ex Stapf, Pterodiscus gayi Decne., Pterodiscus kellerianus Schinz, Pterodiscus luridus Hook. fil., Pterodiscus makatiniensis Peckover, Pterodiscus ngamicus N. E. Brown ex Stapf, Pterodiscus ruspolii Engl., Pterodiscus saccatus S. Moore, Pterodiscus speciosus Hook. and Pterodiscus undulatus Baker fil.[12]
Illustration from Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien showing Pterodiscus at letter F
References

"Genus: Pterodiscus Hook". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
"Pterodiscus Archives". World of Succulents. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
"Pterodiscus Hook. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
Ib Friis and Olof Ryding (Editors) Biodiversity Research in the Horn of Africa Region: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea at the Carlsberg Academy, Copenhagen, August 25-27, 1999 (2001), p. 65, at Google Books
"Pterodiscus speciosus Hook. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
Focke Albers Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Dicotyledons (2002), p. 351, at Google Books
"Pterodiscus Hook. [family PEDALIACEAE] on JSTOR". plants.jstor.org. jstor.org. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
"Genus page: Pterodiscus". www.zimbabweflora.co.zw. Flora of Zimbabwe. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
"CAUDICIFORM Pterodiscus speciosus". www.bihrmann.com. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
"Flora of Botswana: Genus page: Pterodiscus". www.botswanaflora.com. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
"Tropicos - Name Search". legacy.tropicos.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
"Pterodiscus names - Encyclopedia of Life". eol.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.

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