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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Quercus arizonica
Name

Quercus arizonica Sarg., 1895
Synonyms

Heterotypic
Quercus arizonica var. wootonii Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 89 (1924).
Quercus sacame Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 89 (1924).
Quercus endemica C.H.Mull., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 18: 846 (1937).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Southwestern USA
Arizona
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest
Regional: Southern Central USA
New Mexico, Texas

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Sargent, C.S., 1895. Garden and Forest; a Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art and Forestry 8:89. 1895

Additional references

Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (1998). World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales: 1-408. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Villareal, J.A., Encina D., J.A. & Carranza P., M.A. (2008). Los encinos (Quercus: Fagaceae) de Coahuila, Mexico Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2: 1235-1278.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus arizonica in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus arizonica in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Quercus arizonica. Published online. Accessed: Jun 27 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Quercus arizonica. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27.
Hassler, M. 2021. Quercus arizonica. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Quercus arizonica. Accessed: 27 Jun 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Quercus arizonica in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: سنديان أريزوني
Deutsch: Arizona-Eiche, Arizona-Weißeiche
English: Arizona white oak, Arizona White Oak
español: Encina Arizona
Türkçe: Arizona meşesi

Quercus arizonica, the Arizona white oak, is a North American tree species in the beech family. It is found in Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sinaloa, and Durango.[3][4][5]
Description

The Arizona white oak is one of the largest southwestern oaks. This tree may grow to 60 ft (18 meters), with a trunk diameter of 3.3 ft (1 meter). It has stout branches and a spreading crown. The leaves are about 3.2 inches (8 cm) long, thick, and evergreen. It grows very slowly once it has become mature, adding approximately 0.1 inches of diameter per year.[6]

Bark: color is light grayish. The bark is initially thin and lenticelled, but later becomes quite thick, with shallow fissures and scaly ridges.[6]
Twig: medium-sized, fuzzy. The color can be light brown or reddish brown. Twigs have pointy and fat clusters of terminal buds.[6]
Leaves: alternate, evergreen, simple, and oblong. The color is yellowish green or bluish green. Leaves are usually 11⁄2 to 31⁄2 inches long. The margins are usually entire or toothed, and are rounded at the base. The texture of the leaves is leathery and stiff. The veins are parallel, and are sunken on the upperside and raised underneath. Leaves may begin to shed in late winter, or when new leaves emerge in spring.[6]
Fruit: oblong acorn that is 1/2 to 1 inch long. Acorns have bowl-shaped caps that cover 1/3 of the nut. Acorns usually mature in autumn. The quantity of acorns produced can vary year to year, producing about 32,000 acorns one year and very few the next. Germination of acorns is highly correlated with the amount of moisture during the rainy season.[6]
Flowers: monoecious, meaning that male and female organs occur in different flowers on the same tree. Female flowers occur as small spikes in the leaf axils. Male flowers are long, drooping, yellowish green catkins.[6][7]

Cultivation

The Arizona white oak can be found in a vast array of habitats such as savannas, grasslands, and chaparrals. They are usually found in mountain-like areas that are above about 1,675 meters in elevation. Water use is low and it requires sun or part shade. Soil moisture must be dry and it must be rocky or sandy soils. Soils may be clay loam, clay, medium loam, or rocky. The Arizona white oak is both heat and cold tolerant.

Response to fires

When Arizona white oaks are small they usually die by fire. The acorns are usually killed by fires as well. The foliage is extremely flammable but larger trees usually survive fires that are not as severe and if a stump survives a fire it will sprout rapidly afterwards.

Threats

The wood decaying fungus Inonotus andersoni affects the Arizona white oak negatively. Burning and herbicide treatment has also affected the growth of the Arizona white oak, so they are being managed by pinyon-juniper silvicultural systems.
Uses

The wood is usually used for fuel. Since the wood of the Arizona white oak is hard, heavy, and strong, it is rarely used for commercial reasons such as furniture production.

The Arizona white oak provides cover for such animals like deer, turkeys, javelinas, desert sheep, songbirds, and quail. The white tailed deer is also known to utilize it for cover. For white-tailed and mule deer, the Arizona white oak is highly palatable as well. The only species known to consume the acorns in quantity is the thick-billed parrot.[8]

The Arizona white oak can also be used as an ornamental plant.
See also

Linden Oak, possibly the largest living white oak in the United States

References

"Quercus arizonica", NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe, retrieved 2007-07-06
"Quercus arizonica Sarg.", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List
"Quercus arizonica", County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA), Biota of North America Program (BONAP), 2014
SEINet, Southwestern Biodiversity, Arizona chapter
Little Jr., Elbert L. (1976). "Map 131, Quercus arizonica". Atlas of United States Trees. 3 (Minor Western Hardwoods). US Government Printing Office. LCCN 79-653298. OCLC 4053799.
Nixon, Kevin C. (1997), "Quercus arizonica", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA), 3, New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA
Sargent, Charles Sprague 1895. Garden & Forest 8: 92-93
Peattie, Donald Culross (1953). A Natural History of Western Trees. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 439.

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