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Quercus castaneifolia

Quercus castaneifolia, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Quercus castaneifolia
Name

Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey., Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer.: 44 (1831).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Quercus aegilops var. castaneifolia (C.A.Mey.) K.Koch, Linnaea 22: 329 (1849).
Quercus castaneifolia subsp. eucastaneifolia A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 1: 552 (1938), nom. inval.
Quercus castaneifolia var. typica A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 1: 555 (1938), nom. inval.
Heterotypic
Quercus castaneifolia var. glabriuscula A.DC. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 50 (1864).
Quercus castaneifolia var. obtusiloba Freyn, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 2: 904 (1902).
Quercus aitchisoniana A.Camus, Chênes, Atlas 1: 45 (1934).
Quercus castaneifolia subsp. aitchisoniana A.Camus, Chênes, Atlas 1: 45 (1934).
Quercus sintenisiana O.Schwarz, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12: 468 (1935).
Quercus castaneifolia subsp. incurvata Djav.-Khoie, Chênes Iran: 72 (1967), contrary to Art. 30.5 (ICBN, 2006).
Quercus castaneifolia subsp. subrotundata Djav.-Khoie, Chênes Iran: 73 (1967), contrary to Art. 30.5 (ICBN, 2006).
Quercus castaneifolia subsp. triangularis Djav.-Khoie, Chênes Iran: 75 (1967), contrary to Art. 30.5 (ICBN, 2006).
Quercus castaneifolia var. minuta Djav.-Khoie, Turkish J. Bot. 42: 670 (2018).
Quercus castaneifolia subsp. undulata Djav.-Khoie, Turkish J. Bot. 42: 670 (2018).

Homonyms

Quercus castaneifolia Pantan. = Quercus trojana subsp. trojana

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Regional: Western Asia
Iran.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Meyer, C.A.v. 1831. Verzeichniss der Pflanzen, welche während der, auf allerhöchsten Befehl, in den Jahren 1829 und 1830 unternommenen Reise im Caucasus und in den Provinzen am westlichen Ufer des Caspischen Meeres gefunden und eingesammelt worden sind. St. Petersburg, Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. Gallica, MDZ Reference page. : 44

Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. & Frodin, D. 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae). VIII + 408 p. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-900347-46-6. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus castaneifolia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus castaneifolia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Quercus castaneifolia. Published online. Accessed: Jun 28 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Quercus castaneifolia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28.
Hassler, M. 2021. Quercus castaneifolia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Quercus castaneifolia. Accessed: 28 Jun 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Quercus castaneifolia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: سنديان كستنائي الأوراق
azərbaycanca: Şabalıdyarpaq palıd
Deutsch: Kastanienblättrige Eiche
English: Chestnut-leaved Oak
español: Roble persa
فارسی: بلندمازو
magyar: Gesztenyelevelű tölgy
հայերեն: Կաղնի շագանակատերև
norsk: Kastanjebladeik
polski: Dąb kasztanolistny
русский: Дуб каштанолистный

Quercus castaneifolia, the chestnut-leaved oak, is a species of oak in the turkey oak section Quercus sect. Cerris. It is native to the Caucasus and Alborz mountains of Iran, and resembles the closely related Turkey Oak in appearance.

Description
Fruit of Chestnut-leaved oak
Q. castaneifolia leaves

Q. castaneifolia is a deciduous tree growing < 35 m tall, with a trunk < 2.5 m diameter (exceptionally up to 50 m tall with a trunk < 3.5 m diameter[2]). The leaves are 10–20 cm long and 3–5 cm wide, with 10–15 small, regular triangular lobes on each side. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins; the fruit is an acorn, maturing about 18 months after pollination, 2–3 cm long and 1.5–2 cm broad, bicoloured with an orange basal half grading to a green-brown tip; the acorn cup is 2 cm deep, densely covered in soft 4–8 mm long 'mossy' bristles. The acorns are very bitter, but are eaten by jays and pigeons; squirrels usually only eat them when other food sources have been exhausted.
Cultivation

The tree was introduced to England in 1846, but remains relatively rare in collections despite being a vigorous grower. A tree from the original introduction is at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,[3] another survives at the Harlow Carr arboretum in Yorkshire.

The cultivar Quercus castaneifolia 'Green Spire' has been selected for its erect growth.
Trivia

A specimen of Quercus castaneifolia found in the Hyrcanian forest of northern Iran on 29. April 2021 by Alireza Naqinezhad is considered to be the tallest oak in the world. It has a height of 60.4m, a diameter of 4.9m, and a circumference of 22m. The finding was published in a tweet by Pieter De Frenne, professor of forestry at the faculty of Bioscience Engineering at Ghent University. [4]
References

"Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
"European Trees". Eastern Native Tree Society. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
"Kew: Plants: Chestnut-leaved Oak, Quercus castaneifolia". www.kew.org. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
"Pieter De Frenne on Twitter". www.twitter.com. Retrieved 2021-05-22.

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