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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Subgenus: Q. subg. Cyclobalanopsis

Species: Q. glauca

Quercus glauca Thunb. in A.Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 858 (1784).

Perytis glauca (Thunb.) Raf., Alsogr. Amer.: 29 (1838).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 18: 78 (1866).
Quercus glauca subsp. euglauca A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 1: 282 (1938), not validly publ.
Quercus matasii Siebold, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 12: 26 (1830), nom. nud.
Quercus dentosa Lindl. ex Wall., Numer. List: n.º 2775 (1831), nom. nud.
Quercus laxiflora Lindl. ex Wall., Numer. List: n.º 2774 (1831), nom. nud.
Quercus glauca var. nudata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1: 303 (1850).
Quercus glauca var. caesia Blume, Mus. Bot. 1: 303 (1851).
Quercus lacera Blume, Mus. Bot. 1: 306 (1851).
Quercus glauca var. micrococca Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 1: 449 (1875).
Quercus vibrayeana Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 498 (1878).
Quercus glauca var. lacera (Blume) Matsum., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 5: 76 (1891).
Quercus acuta var. bambusifolia G.Nicholson, Hand-List Trees Shrubs 2: 181 (1896).
Quercus glauca var. villosa Skan, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 26: 515 (1899).
Cyclobalanopsis vibrayana (Franch. & Sav.) Schottky, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 47: 656 (1912).
Quercus vaniotii H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 364 (1913).
Quercus glauca var. stricta Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 29: 55 (1915).
Quercus sasakii Kaneh., Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6: 64 (1916).
Quercus tranninhensis Hickel & A.Camus, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 10, 3: 382 (1921).
Quercus blakei var. vaniotii (H.Lév.) Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 9: 153 (1928).
Cyclobalanopsis sasakii (Kaneh.) Kudô & Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 20: 161 (1930).
Quercus glauca var. linearifolia Koidz., Fl. Symb. Orient.-Asiat.: 8 (1930).
Quercus glauca var. elongata Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 46: 637 (1932).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. elongata (Honda) Sugim., Key Trees Shrubs Japan: 58 (1936).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. lacera (Blume) Sugim., Key Trees Shrubs Japan: 58 (1936).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. linearifolia (Koidz.) Sugim., Key Trees Shrubs Japan: 58 (1936).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. stricta (Makino) Sugim., Key Trees Shrubs Japan: 58 (1936).
Quercus ichangensis Nakai ex A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 1: 282 (1938).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. latifolia Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 25: 130 (1950).
Quercus amamiana Hatus., J. Jap. Bot. 26: 372 (1951).
Quercus longipes Hu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 147 (1951), nom. illeg.
Cyclobalanopsis amamiana (Hatus.) Masam., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ., Biol. 2(2): 60 (1954).
Quercus lotungensis Chun & W.C.Ko, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 38 (1958).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca f. latifolia (Nakai) Hiyama ex Sugim., New Keys Jap. Trees: 460 (1961).
Cyclobalanopsis globosa T.P.Lin & T.S.Liu, Bull. Taiwan Forest Res. Inst. 110: 27 (1965).
Quercus repandifolia J.C.Liao, Formosan Sci. 23(3-4): 13 (1968).
Quercus glauca var. kuyuensis J.C.Liao, Mem. Coll. Agric. Natl. Taiwan Univ. 11(2): 37 (1970).
Quercus globosa (T.P.Lin & T.S.Liu) J.C.Liao, Mem. Coll. Agric. Natl. Taiwan Univ. 11: 41 (1970).
Quercus glauca f. lacera (Blume) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 26: 9 (1974).
Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. kuyuensis (J.C.Liao) J.C.Liao, Fl. Taiwan 2: 68 (1976).
Cyclobalanopsis repandifolia (J.C.Liao) J.C.Liao, Fl. Taiwan 2: 74 (1976).
Quercus glauca var. podocupula C.F.Shen in C.F.Shen & T.S.Liu, Taxon. & Pollen Morph. Fagaceae Taiwan: 53 (1984).
Quercus glauca var. amamiana (Hatus.) Hatus. ex H.Ohba, Fl. Japan 2a: 52 (2006).
Quercus glauca f. nudata (Blume) M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl.: 523 (2017).


Quercus glauca Bürger ex Blume = Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) Nakai
Quercus glauca Martrin-Donos & Timb.-Lagr. = Quercus ilex L.
Quercus × glauca Bosc ex Poir. = Quercus × prasina Pers.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Indian Subcontinent
Assam, East Himalaya, Nepal, Tibet, West Himalaya.
Regional: China
China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan.
Regional: Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan.
Continental: Asia-Tropical
Regional: Indo-China
Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Murray, J.A. 1784. Systema Vegetabilium: secundum classes ordines genera species cum characteribus et differentiis. Editio decima quarta. xx + 1004 pp. J. C. Dieterich, Gottingae [Göttingen]. BHL Reference page. : 858.

Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. & Frodin, D. 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae). VIII + 408 p. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-900347-46-6. Reference page.
Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. 2014. Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF). 563 p. Seoul: T.B. Lee Herbarium. PDF Reference page.
Deng, M., Li, Q., Coombes, A. & Xu, J. (2013). Typification of Quercus acuta Thunb. and Q. glauca Thunb. (Fagaceae) Phytotaxa 137: 27-34.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus glauca in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus glauca in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Quercus glauca. Published online. Accessed: Jun 30 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Quercus glauca. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30.
Hassler, M. 2021. Quercus glauca. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Quercus glauca. Accessed: 30 Jun 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Quercus glauca in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: سنديان أغبر
català: Roure japonès
English: Ring-cupped Oak
日本語: アラカシ
中文: 青剛櫟, 鐵椆, 校欑, 白校讚, 圓果青剛櫟, 波緣葉櫟, 波葉櫟

Quercus glauca (syn. Cyclobalanopsis glauca), commonly called ring-cupped oak or Japanese blue oak,[4] is a tree in the beech family (Fagaceae). It is native to eastern and southern Asia, where it is found in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, northern and eastern India, southern Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, and Vietnam.[5]


Quercus glauca is a small to medium-sized evergreen broadleaf tree growing to 15–20 m tall. The leaves are a distinct deep purple-crimson on new growth, soon turning glossy green above, glaucous blue-green below, 60–13 mm long and 20–50 mm broad, with a serrated margin. The flowers are catkins, and the fruit are acorns 1–1.6 cm long, with series of concentric rings on the outside of the acorn cup (it is in the "ring-cupped oak" sub-genus).[5]
Cultivation and uses

It is planted as an ornamental tree in regions of Europe and North America with mild winters.

Its acorns are edible. When dried and ground into powder they can be mixed with cereals and used as flour. The roasted seeds can be used as a coffee substitute. The wood of Quercus glauca is a valuable fuelwood. Its leaves and stems are relished by deer.[6]

Detail of acorns and buds

Dried leaves and acorns


illustration from D. Brandis, Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, 1874
Tropicos, Quercus glauca
"Quercus glauca Thunb.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
Quercus glauca North Carolina State University
Huang, Chengjiu; Zhang, Yongtian; Bartholomew, Bruce. "Cyclobalanopsis glauca". Flora of China. Vol. 4 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Heuzé V., Tran G., Lebas F., 2017. Blue Japanese oak (Quercus glauca). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/109

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