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Quercus infectoria ssp. veneris

A 200 year old Oak tree, "Quercus infectoria ssp. veneris", in Pano Platres Cyprus, Diameter 4.89 m, Height c. 20 m , Photo:  Augusta Stylianou Artist

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Quercus infectoria
Subspecies: Q. i. subsp. infectoria – Q. i. subsp. tenuicarpa – Q. i. subsp. veneris
Name

Quercus infectoria Olivier, Voy. Emp. Othoman 1: 252 (1801).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Quercus lusitanica var. infectoria (G.Olivier) A.DC. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 18 (1864).
Quercus lusitanica subsp. infectoria (G.Olivier) Mouill., Traité Arbr. Arbriss. 2: 1163 (1892).
Quercus infectoria subsp. euinfectoria A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 2: 186 (1939), nom. inval.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Transcaucasus, Turkey
Continental: Europe
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Greece

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Olivier, G.A. 1801. Voy. Emp. Othoman 1: 252.

Additional references

Davis, P.H. (ed.) 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. 9 vols. + Supplement. University Press, Edinburgh. Reference page.
Govaerts, R.H.A. & Frodin, D. 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae). VIII + 408 p. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-900347-46-6. Reference page.
Komarov, V.L. et al. (eds.). 1934–1964. Flora SSSR. 30 vols. Moscow/Leningrad: Botanicheskii institut, Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus infectoria in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus infectoria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Quercus infectoria. Published online. Accessed: Jun 30 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Quercus infectoria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30.
Hassler, M. 2021. Quercus infectoria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 30. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Quercus infectoria. Accessed: 30 Jun 2021.

Jerome, D. 2018. Quercus infectoria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. IUCN Red List Category: Least Concern. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T194176A58075577.en.

Vernacular names
Bahasa, Indonesia: Manjakani

Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά : Δρυς η βαφική υποείδ. της Αφροδίτη

Türkçe: Mazı meşesi

Quercus infectoria or the Aleppo oak is a species of oak well known for producing galls (called manjakani in Malaysia, majuphal in India) that have been traditionally used for centuries in Asia medicinally while also used in softening leather and in making black dye and ink.[3]

Distribution

Quercus infectoria is indigenous to parts of southern Europe (Greece and the East Aegean Islands) and the Middle East (Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan).[4]
Description

Quercus infectoria is a small tree native of Greece and Asia Minor, with one to two metres (four to six feet) in height.[citation needed] The stems are crooked, shrubby looking with smooth and bright-green leaves borne on short petioles of 3 to 4 cm (1 to 1.5 inches) long. The leaves are bluntly mucronate, rounded, smooth, unequal at the base and shiny on the upper side.

The galls arise on young branches of the Quercus infectoria tree when gall wasps[5] sting the oak tree and deposit their larvae the chemical reaction causes an abnormality in the oak tree causing hard balls to be formed. They are corrugated in appearance.
Uses

Quercus infectoria can be used as a thickener in stews or mixed with cereals for making bread.[6]

Also known as Majuphal in Indian traditional medicine, manjakani has been used as dental powder and in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis.[7][8]

The so-called "Aleppo tannin" is Tannic acid gained from Aleppo oak galls, which displays unique chemical properties essential in the preparation of gold sols (colloids) used as markers in Immunocytochemistry.[9] [10]

Nowadays, gallnut extracts are also widely used in pharmaceuticals, food and feed additives, dyes, inks, and metallurgy.

Constituents

The galls from Quercus infectoria contain the highest naturally occurring level of tannin, approx. 50–70%,[11] syringic acid, β-sitosterol, amentoflavone, hexamethyl ether, isocryptomerin, methyl betulate, methyl oleanate and hexagalloyl glucose.[12][13][11][14] They also contain 2-4% each of gallic and ellagic acid that are polymerized to make tannins.[15][16][17] Tannins have been used for hundreds of years for medical purposes and are currently indispensable in dermatology[18] and have been used for tanning of leather.
Tannins from the nutgalls

Tannins comprise a large group of natural products widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They have a great structural diversity, but are usually divided into two basic groups: the hydrolyzable type and the condensed type. Hydrolyzable tannins include the commonly occurring gallic and ellagic acid contained in the nut galls.

Hydrolyzable tannins are present in many different plant species but are found in particularly high concentrations in nut galls growing on Rhus semialata (Chinese and Korean gallotannins) and Quercus infectoria (Turkish and Chinese gallotannins), the seedpods of Caesalpinia spinosa (Tara tannins), and the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The gallic and ellagic acid hydrolyzable tannins react with proteins to produce typical tanning effects; medicinally, this is important to topically treat inflamed or ulcerated tissues. They also contribute to most of the astringent property of manjakani and in small insignificant doses, are great for skin whitening and killing microorganisms.

Although both types of tannin have been used to treat diseases in traditional medicine, the hydrolyzable tannins have long been considered official medicinal agents in Europe and North America. They have been included in many pharmacopoeias, in the older editions in particular, and are specifically referred to as tannic acid. These were recommended for treatment of inflammation and ulceration, including topical application for skin diseases and internal use for intestinal ulceration and diarrhea. In China, tannin-containing substances, such as galls, pomegranate rinds, and terminalia fruits, are used in several medicinal preparations.
Pharmacology

The galls of Quercus infectoria have also been pharmacologically documented to possess astringent, antidiabetic,[19] antitremorine, local anaesthetic,[20] antiviral,[21] antibacterial,[22] antifungal,[23] larvicidal[24] and anti-inflammatory[25] activities. The main constituents found in the galls of Quercus infectoria are tannin (50-70%) and small amount of free gallic acid and ellagic acid.[26][27][28]

The wide range of pharmacological activities of this plant might support the efficacy of extract preparation of Quercus infectoria that are widely used in Malaysia for treating many kinds of health problems since many decades ago. The nutgalls have been pharmacologically documented on their antiamoebic,[29] anticariogenic[30] and anti-inflammatory[31] activities, to treat skin infections and gastrointestinal disorders.[32][33][34][35]
Uses of the galls

Nowadays, gall nut extracts are widely used in pharmaceuticals, medical laboratory techniques as well as inks which use "Aleppo tannin",[36] food and feed additives, dyes, and metallurgy.

Tanning

Tannin, a substance contained in the galls of the Quercus infectoria, has been used for centuries for the tanning of leather.

Medical laboratory techniques

The so-called "Aleppo tannin" is tannic acid gained from Aleppo pine galls, which displays unique chemical properties essential in the preparation of gold sols (colloids) used as markers in immunocytochemistry.[37] [38]

Teeth and gum remedy

Also known as majuphal in Indian traditional medicine, manjakani has been used as dental powder and in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis.[39][40]
Uterine and vaginal therapy
The galls, locally known as manjakani in Malaysia, are used in combination with other herbs as drinking remedies by women after childbirth to restore the elasticity of the uterine wall, and in many vaginal tightening products.[41] The extract of manjakani was claimed by the Malay Kelantanese to be highly beneficial for postpartum women. Hazardous effects of the extract were not reported so far. In addition, the Arabs, Persians, Indians, Malays and Chinese have traditionally used the galls after childbirth to treat vaginal discharge and related postpartum infections.

See also

Herbal medicine
Medicinal plants
Succulent plants
List of Quercus species
Quercus lusitanica

References

"Quercus infectoria G.Olivier". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
"Quercus infectoria Olivier". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden.
Kottakkal AVS (1995). The Indian Medicinal Plants.
T. K. Lim 2012. Quercus infectoria. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants, pages 16-26
Muhamad Z; Mustafa AM (1994). Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd.
Stashia Eleaness; Rosland Abel (2013). "1". In Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (ed.). The extraction of essential oil from Quercus infectoria (Manjakani) galls using supercritical carbon dioxide pressure swing technique. Faculty of Chemical Engineering.
Kottakkal AVS. (1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Orient Longman Ltd.
Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer Publishers.
Frank Mayer (1988). Electron Microscopy in Microbiology. Vol. 20. London: Academic Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780080860497. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
Gareth Griffiths (1993). Fine Structure Immunocytochemistry. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-642-77097-5.
Dar MS; Ikram M (1979). "Studies on Quercus infectoria; isolation of syringic acid and determination of its central depressive activity". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 35 (2): 156–161. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097197. PMID 419182.
Dar MS; Ikram M (1979). "Studies on Quercus infectoria; isolation of syringic acid and determination of its central depressive activity". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 35 (2): 156–61. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097197. PMID 419182.
Hwang JK; Kong TW; Baek NI; Pyun YR (2000). alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med.
Hwang JK; Kong TW; Baek NI; Pyun YR (2000). alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med.
Ikram M; Nowshad F (1997). "Constituents of Quercus infectoria". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 31 (3): 286–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097531. PMID 866492.PubMed
Evans WC (1996). Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin. London: WB Saunders Co. Ltd.
Wiart C; Kumar A (2001). Practical Handbook of Pharmacognosy. Malaysia: Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
Regina Fölster-Holst M.D.; Eva Latussek Ph.D.2 (2007). "Synthetic Tannins in Dermatology — A Therapeutic Option in a Variety of Pediatric Dermatoses". Pediatric Dermatology. Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel. 24 (3): 296–301. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2007.00406.x. PMID 17542884.
Hwang JK; Kong TW; Baek NI; Pyun YR (2000). α-Glycosidase Inhibitory Activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med.PubMed
Dar MS; Ikram M; Fakouhi T (1976). "Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. J Pharm Sci. 65 (12): 1791–4. doi:10.1002/jps.2600651224. PMID 1032663.PubMedPubMed
Hussein G; Miyashiro H; Nakamura N; Hattori M; Kakiuchi N; Shimotohno K (2000). Inhibitory effects of Sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus protease. Phytother Res. doi:10.1002/1099-1573(200011)14:7<510::AID-PTR646>3.0.CO;2-B.
Fatima S; Farooqi AHA; Kumar R; Kumar TRS; Khanuja SPS (2001). Antibacterial activity possessed by medicinal plants used in tooth powders. J Med Aromatic Plant Sci.
Digraki M; Alma MH; Ilcim A; Sen S (1999). Antibacterial and antifungal effects of various commercial plant extracts. Pharm Biol.
Redwane A; Lazrek HB; Bouallam S; Markouk M; Amarouch H; Jana M (2002). Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.). J Ethnopharmacol.PubMedFull Text
Kaur G; Hamid H; Ali A; Alam MS; Athar M (2004). "Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 90 (2–3): 285–92. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.009. PMID 15013194.PubMedFull Text
Ikram M; Nowshad F (1997). "Constituents of Quercus infectoria". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 31 (3): 286–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097531. PMID 866492.PubMed
Evans WC (1996). Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin. London: WB Saunders Co. Ltd.
Wiart C; Kumar A (2001). Practical Handbook of Pharmacognosy. Malaysia: Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
Sawangjaroen; Sawangjaroen K; Poonpanang P.; et al. (2004). "Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 91 (2–3): 357–60. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.01.014. PMID 15120461.PubMed
Kaur G; Hamid H; Ali A; Alam MS; Athar M (2004). "Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 90 (2–3): 285–92. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.009. PMID 15013194.PubMed
Kaur G; Alam MS; Athar M (2007). "Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages". Chemico-Biological Interactions. Chem Biol Interact. 171 (3): 272–82. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2007.10.002. PMID 18076871.PubMed
Kaur G; Alam MS; Athar M (2007). "Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages". Chemico-Biological Interactions. Chem Biol Interact. 171 (3): 272–82. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2007.10.002. PMID 18076871.PubMed
Kaur G; Hamid H; Ali A; Alam MS; Athar M (2004). "Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 90 (2–3): 285–92. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.009. PMID 15013194.PubMed
Dayang F.B.; Hikmah M.I.; Mastura M. (2005). An alternative phytotherapeutic agent for treatment of hospital-acquired MRSA infections. J Med Sci.
Voravuthikunchai; S.P.; Limsuwan; S. and Chusri (2007). New perspectives on herbal medicines for treating bacterial infections. Houxton: Studium Press.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Aleppo oak |accessdate=17 May 2015
Frank Mayer (1988). Electron Microscopy in Microbiology. Vol. 20. London: Academic Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780080860497. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
Gareth Griffiths (1993). Fine Structure Immunocytochemistry. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-642-77097-5.
Kottakkal AVS. (1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Orient Longman Ltd.
Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer Publishers.
Muhamad Z; Mustafa AM (1994). Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd.

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