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Ranunculus asiaticus

Ranunculus asiaticus (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Ranunculales

Familia: Ranunculaceae
Subfamilia: Ranunculoideae
Tribus: Ranunculeae
Genus: Ranunculus
Species: Ranunculus asiaticus
Name

Ranunculus asiaticus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 552. 1753.

Protologue locality: "Habitat in Asia vel Mauritania."
Lectotypus: Herb. Linn. No. 715.34 (LINN), designated by Turland in Jarvis & al. (ed.), Taxon 54: 470 (2005).

Synonyms

Homotypic
Cyprianthe asiatica (L.) Freyn in Willkomm & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. 3. 942. 1880.
Heterotypic
Ranunculus asiaticus var. albus Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 330 (1924)
Ranunculus asiaticus var. roseus Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 330 (1924)
Ranunculus asiaticus var. flavus Sickenb., Mem. Inst. Egypte 4, 2: 171 (1901)
Ranunculus asiaticus var. flavus Dörfl., Herb. norm., Schedae ad Cent. 45: 126. (1903).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. puniceus Dörfl., Herb. norm., Schedae ad Cent. 45: 126 (1903).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. superbissimus Hort.
Ranunculus sanguineus Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 10 (1768).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. sanguineus (Mill.) DC., Syst. Nat. 1: 262 (1818).
Ranunculus asiaticus f. sanguineus (Mill.) Vierh., Österr. Bot. Z. 84: 134 (1935).
Cyprianthe anemonoides Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 7: 221 (1838).
Ranunculus flammipetalus Gand., Fl. Cret.: 6 (1916).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. flammipetalus (Gand.) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 331 (1924)
Ranunculus garianicus Borzí & Mattei, Boll. Reale Orto Bot. Palermo 11: 239 (1912).
Ranunculus hortensis Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 104 (1806).
Ranunculus africanus hort., Blumeng., ed. 3, Sieb. & Voss, 1: 17 (1894).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. bereniceus Pamp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 24: 136 (1947).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. bicolor Pamp., Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1914: 14 (1914)
Ranunculus asiaticus var. grandiflorus Bég. & Vacc., Ann. Bot. (Roma) 12: 105 (1913).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. intermedius Pamp., Archiv. Bot. 12: 28 (1936).
Ranunculus asiaticus subsp. latilobus Vierh., Österr. Bot. Z. 84: 133 (1935).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. tenuilobus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 31 ().
Ranunculus asiaticus subsp. tenuilobus (Boiss.) Vierh., Österr. Bot. Z. 84: 134 (1935).
Ranunculus asiaticus var. variegatus Sickenb., Mem. Inst. Egypte 4, 2: 171 (1901)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Greece, Kriti.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Egypt, Libya.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
Continental: Southern America
Regional: Western South America
Bolivia.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 552. Reference page.

Links

USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Ranunculus asiaticus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Ranunculus asiaticus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov 16. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Ranunculus asiaticus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov 16. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2020. Ranunculus asiaticus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov 16.

Vernacular names
English: Asian buttercup, turban buttercup
eesti: Aasia tulikas
suomi: Jaloleinikki
français: Renoncule des fleuristes
עברית: נורית אסיה
русский: Лютик азиатский
svenska: Bukettranunkel

Ranunculus asiaticus, the Persian buttercup, is a species of buttercup (Ranunculus) native to the eastern Mediterranean region in southwestern Asia, southeastern Europe (Crete, Karpathos and Rhodes), and northeastern Africa.[1]

It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 45 cm tall, with simple or branched stems. The basal leaves are three-lobed, with leaves higher on the stems more deeply divided; like the stems, they are downy or hairy. The flowers are 3–5 cm diameter, variably red to pink, yellow, or white, with one to several flowers on each stem.[2]

It is a protected species in some jurisdictions, including Israel.
Cultivation and uses

Double-flowered forms, which are likely hybrids, are a popular ornamental plant in gardens, and widely used in floristry. Numerous cultivars have been selected, including 'Bloomingdale', 'Picotee', 'Pot Dwarf', and 'Superbissima'. The plants can tolerate light frost, but are not hardy at temperatures below -10 °C.[2]

'Tecolote' and 'Bloomingdale' are examples of the double-flowered plants (not shown here). The single-flowered species form is not commercially cultivated on any significant scale. By contrast, the similar-looking Anemone coronaria is widely available in single-flower 'De Caen' hybrid forms. However, as with Ranunculus asiaticus, the species form, which also has red single flowers, is not commercially cultivated.
References

"Ranunculus asiaticus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 16 January 2018.
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.

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