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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Rosales

Familia: Rhamnaceae
Subfamiliae: Rhamnoideae – Ziziphoideae

Tribus: Ampelozizipheae – Bathiorhamneae – Colletieae – Doerpfeldieae – Gouanieae – Maesopsideae – Paliureae – Phyliceae – Pomaderreae – Rhamneae – Ventilagineae

Genera: AdolphiaAlphitonia – Alvimiantha – Ampelozizyphus – Atadinus – Auerodendron – Bathiorhamnus – Berchemia – Berchemiella – Blackallia – Ceanothus – Chaydaia – Colletia – Colubrina – Condalia – Crumenaria – Cryptandra – Discaria – Doerpfeldia – Emmenosperma – Endotropis – Frangula – Gouania – Helinus – Hovenia – Johnstonalia – Karwinskia – Kentrothamnus – Krugiodendron – Lasiodiscus – Maesopsis – Nesiota – Noltea – Ochetophila – Paliurus – Papistylus – Polianthion – Phylica – Pleuranthodes – Pomaderris – Pseudoziziphus – Reissekia – Retanilla – Reynosia – Rhamnella – Rhamnidium – Rhamnus – Sageretia – Sarcomphalus – Schistocarpaea – Scutia – Serichonus – Siegfriedia – Smythea – Spyridium – Stenanthemum – Trevoa – Trymalium – Ventilago – Ziziphus

Paleogenera: †Rhamnites

Name

Rhamnaceae Juss., Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 376. (1789) (as "Rhamni") nom. cons.

Type genus: Rhamnus L. Sp. Pl. 1: 193. 1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Ziziphaceae

Note: See discussion page with respect to uncertainties with this family.
References
Primary references

Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. 498 pp. Paris: Herissant et Theophile Barrois. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Bean, A.R. 2010. A revision of Alphitonia (Rhamnaceae) for Australia. Muelleria 28(2): 3–17. ResearchGate Reference page.
Hauenschild, F., Matuszak, S., Muellner-Riehl, A.N. & Favre, A. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships within the cosmopolitan buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae) support the resurrection of Sarcomphalus and the description of Pseudoziziphus gen. nov. Taxon 65(1): 47-64. DOI: 10.12705/651.4 Reference page.
Hauenschild, F., Favre, A., Salazar, G.A. & Muellner-Riehl, A.N. 2016. Analysis of the cosmopolitan buckthorn genera Frangula and Rhamnus s.l. supports the description of a new genus, Ventia. Taxon 65(1): 65-78. DOI: 10.12705/651.5 Paywall Erratum Reference page.
Kellermann, J. 2021. Further lectotypifications and nomenclatural notes on Rhamnaceae from northern Australia. Swainsona 35: 1-9. PDF Reference page.
Reveal, J.L. 2012. An outline of a classification scheme for extant flowering plants. Phytoneuron 2012-37: 1–221. Full text PDF Reference page.
Richardson, J.E., Fay, M.F., Cronk, Q.C.B. & Chase, M.W. 2000. A revision of the tribal classification of Rhamnaceae. Kew Bulletin 55{2}: 311-340. DOI: 10.2307/4115645 Paywall JSTOR Reference page.
Wolfe, J.A. 1968. Paleogene biostratigraphy of nonmarine rocks in King County, Washington. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 571.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Rhamnaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 28. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Rhamnaceae. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2017. Rhamnaceae. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 12 2017.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: نRichardsonبقية
asturianu: Ramnacees
azərbaycanca: Murdarçakimilər
башҡортса: Эт муйылы һымаҡтар
български: Зърникови
català: Ramnàcia
čeština: řešetlákovité
dansk: Korsved-familien
Deutsch: Kreuzdorngewächse
English: Buckthorn family
Esperanto: Ramnacoj
español: Ramnáceas
eesti: Türnpuulised
فارسی: عنابیان
suomi: Paatsamakasvit
français: Rhamnacées
עברית: אשחריים
hornjoserbsce: Hokowcowe rostliny
magyar: Bengefélék
հայերեն: Դժնիկազգիներ
日本語: クロウメモドキ科
қазақша: Қаражемістер тұқымдасы
한국어: 갈매나무과
lietuvių: Šunobeliniai
македонски: Крушини
Nederlands: Wegedoornfamilie
norsk: Trollheggfamilien
polski: Szakłakowate
Runa Simi: Ruq'i yura rikch'aq ayllu
русский: Крушиновые
slovenčina: Rešetliakovité
svenska: Brakvedsväxter
తెలుగు: రామ్నేసి
ไทย: วงศ์พุทรา
Türkçe: Cehrigiller
українська: Крушинові
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chilonjiydadoshlar
Tiếng Việt: Họ Táo
中文: 鼠李科

Rhamnaceae is a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs, and some vines, commonly called the buckthorn family.[2] Rhamnaceae is included in the order Rosales.[3]

The family contains about 55 genera and 950 species.[4] The Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions. The earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Late Cretaceous. Fossil flowers have been collected from the Upper Cretaceous of Mexico and the Paleocene of Argentina.[5]

Leaves of family Rhamnaceae members are simple, i.e., the leaf blades are not divided into smaller leaflets.[2] Leaves can be either alternate or opposite. Stipules are present. These leaves are modified into spines in many genera, in some (e.g. Paliurus spina-christi and Colletia cruciata) spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot.
Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus
Bisexual flower of Helinus, with five sepals and petals, and a yellow, annular nectary disk. The small, clawed petals embrace the stamens.
Flowers of Ziziphus mucronata
Flowers of Rhamnus saxatilis

The flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 (sometimes 4) separate sepals and 5 (sometimes 4 or none) separate petals. The petals may be white, yellowish, greenish, pink or blue, and are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some (e.g. Ceanothus) the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous. The 5 or 4 stamens are opposite the petals.[2] The ovary is mostly superior, with 2 or 3 ovules (or one by abortion).

The fruits are mostly berries, fleshy drupes, or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage, but most are dispersed by mammals and birds. Chinese jujube is the fruit of the jujube tree (Ziziphus zizyphus) and is a major fruit in China.

The American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules.[6]

Economic uses of the Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes. The wood of Rhamnus was also the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants.

Alphitonia ponderosa

Ceanothus

Ceanothus papillosus var. roweanus at the Regional Parks Botanic Garden, Berkeley, California

Contents

1 Genera
2 Systematics
3 References
4 External links

Genera

Tribe Ampelozizipheae
Ampelozizyphus Ducke
Tribe Bathiorhamneae
Bathiorhamnus Capuron
Tribe Colletieae
Adolphia Meisn.
Colletia Comm. ex Juss.
Discaria Hook.
Kentrothamnus Suess. & Overkott
Ochetophila Poepp. ex Reissek
Retanilla (DC.) Brongn.
Trevoa Miers ex Hook.
Tribe Doerpfeldieae
Doerpfeldia Urb.
Tribe Gouanieae
Alvimiantha Grey-Wilson
Crumenaria Mart.
Gouania Jacq.
Helinus E.Mey. ex Endl.
Johnstonalia Tortosa (originally named Johnstonia; by some treated as Gouania)
Pleuranthodes Weberb.
Reissekia Endl.
Tribe Maesopsideae
Maesopsis Engl.
Tribe Paliureae
Hovenia Thunb.
Paliurus Mill.
Ziziphus Mill.
Sarcomphalus P.Browne emend. Hauenschild
Tribe Phyliceae
Nesiota† Hook.f.
Noltea Rchb.
Phylica L.
Trichocephalus Brogn.
Tribe Pomaderreae
Blackallia C.A.Gardner
Cryptandra Sm.
Papistylus Kellermann, Rye & K.R.Thiele
Polianthon K.R.Thiele
Pomaderris Labill.
Serichonus K.R.Thiele
Siegfriedia C.A.Gardner
Spyridium Fenzl
Stenanthemum Reissek
Trymalium Fenzl
Tribe Rhamneae
Auerodendron Urb.
Berchemia Neck. ex DC.
Berchemiella Nakai
Condalia Cav.
Frangula Mill.
Karwinskia Zucc.
Krugiodendron Urb.
Reynosia Griseb.
Rhamnella Miq.
Rhamnidium Reissek
Rhamnus L.
Sageretia Brongn.
Scutia (Comm. ex DC.) Brongn.
Tribe Ventilagineae
Smythea Seem.
Ventilago Gaertn.
Incertae sedis
Alphitonia Endl. (close to Colubrina)
Araracuara Fern.Alonso
Ceanothus L. (close to Pomaderreae)
Chaydaia Pit. (by some treated as Rhamnella)
Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn.
Emmenosperma F.Muell. (close to Colubrina)
Granitites Rye[7] (close to Alphitonia)
Hybosperma Urb. (by some treated as Colubrina)
Jaffrea H.C.Hopkins & Pillon
Lasiodiscus Hook.f.
Schistocarpaea F.Muell.[8] (maybe belonging to Colletieae)

Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics recommend the following clade-based classification of Rhamnaceae:[9]

Elaeagnaceae (outgroup)

Rhamnaceae

Ampeloziziphoids

Ventilago


Bathiorhamnus


Ampelozizyphus

Doerpfeldia




Rhamnoids

Maesopsis



Scutia


Rhamnus

Frangula




Sageretia


Berchemia



Rhamnidium

Rhamnella



Reynosia


Krugiodendron


Karwinskia

Condalia










Ziziphoids

Schistocarpeia




Hovenia


Ziziphus

Paliurus





Gouania

Helinus



Pleuranthodes


Crumenaria

Reissekia







Lasiodiscus

Colubrina



Emmenosperma



Noltea


Trichocephalus


Nesiota

Phylica






Granitites

Alphitonia


Colletieae

Adolphia

Trevoa



Discaria

Kentrothamnus

Colletia

Retanilla




Ceanothus

Pomaderreae

Siegfriedia

Cryptandra


Stenanthemum


Trymalium


Pomaderris

Spyridium














References

"Family: Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed. 2000, p. 166
Walter S. Judd and Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. PMID 21652313. (full text )
Christenhusz, M. J. M., and Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Jud, Nathan A.; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter (2017-05-10). "Flowering after disaster: Early Danian buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) flowers and leaves from Patagonia". PLOS ONE. 12 (5): e0176164. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1276164J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0176164. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5425202. PMID 28489895.
Kummerow, Jochen; Alexander, James V.; Neel, James W.; Fishbeck, Kathleen (January 1978). "Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Ceanothus Roots". American Journal of Botany. 65 (1): 63–69. doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1978.tb10836.x. JSTOR 2442555.
"Granitites". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
"GRIN Genera of Rhamnaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
Sun M, Naeem R, Su J-X, Cao Z-Y, J. Burleigh G, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Chen Z-D. (2016). "Phylogeny of the Rosidae: A dense taxon sampling analysis". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 363–391. doi:10.1111/jse.12211.

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