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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Bignoniaceae
Tribus: Bignonieae
Genus: Roseodendron
Species: R. chryseum – R. donnell-smithii
Name

Roseodendron Miranda, 1965

Type species: Tabebuia donnell-smithii Rose

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Northern America
Mexico
Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras.
Northern South America
Venezuela.
Western South America
Colombia.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Miranda, F., 1965. Bol. Soc. Bot. México No. 29. 42.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Roseodendron in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 May 03. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2019. Roseodendron. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 May 03. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Roseodendron. Published online. Accessed: May 03 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Roseodendron in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2019 May 03.
Tropicos.org 2019. Roseodendron. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 03 May 2019.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Roseodendron in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names

Roseodendron is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.[1] It consists of two species, Roseodendron donnell-smithii and Roseodendron chryseum. The type species for the genus is R. donnell-smithii.[2] Both species are cultivated as ornamentals for their numerous, large, yellow flowers.[3]

Roseodendron donnell-smithii is known colloquially as primavera. It is the larger and more frequently planted of the two species.[4] Its wood is sometimes used to make furniture.[1] It is native to Central America and southern Mexico, but is grown throughout the tropics.[4]

Roseodendron chryseum is endemic to the dry forests of northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela. It is known as araguaney, a name that also applies to Handroanthus chrysanthus. It differs from R. donnell-smithii in its smaller stature, smaller fruit, and more compact inflorescence. The inflorescence is a panicle, but appears racemose because of the short lateral branches and pedicels.[5]

Both species have been placed in Cybistax[3] and in Tabebuia,[5] and they were thought to be closely related to Handroanthus. In 2007, a molecular phylogenetic study showed that Roseodendron is not closer to Tabebuia than Ekmanianthe, not closer to Cybistax than are Godmania and Zeyheria, and not closer to Handroanthus than are Spirotecoma, Parmentiera, Crescentia, and Amphitecna.[6] The authors recommended that Roseodendron be resurrected from Tabebuia, under which most authors of that time had synonymized it.[7]

Description

The wood is not especially heavy or hard, like that of Handroanthus.
The indumentum is of lepidote scales and small glandular hairs.
The inflorescence has an erect and sturdy central rachis.
The calyx is spathaceous, usually somewhat viscid, and is soft and thin like the corolla.
The corolla is yellow and sometimes has thin, red lines.
The fruit is bullate and irregularly costate.

The calyx texture and inflorescence structure of Roseodendron distinguish it clearly from Handroanthus and Tabebuia. The fruit ridges are much more conspicuous than those of any species of Tabebuia.
History

Roseodendron donnell-smithii was named by Joseph N. Rose in 1892[8] as a species of Tabebuia.[9] The specific epithet honors Captain John Donnell Smith (1829–1928), a biologist and officer in the Confederate States Army.[10]

Roseodendron chryseum was named by Sidney Fay Blake in 1918[8] as a species of Tabebuia.[11] The specific epithet is derived from a Greek word meaning "gold colored".[12]

Roseodendron donnell-smithii was transferred from Tabebuia to Cybistax by Russell J. Seibert in 1940.[13] Seibert did likewise for R. chryseum soon afterward, in the same year.[14]

The genus Roseodendron was described in 1965 by Faustino Miranda Gonzalez.[15] It was named for Joseph Nelson Rose. Dendron is a Greek word meaning "tree". Miranda assigned to Roseodendron the same 2 species that it includes today.

Both of these species were transferred back to Tabebuia by Alwyn H. Gentry in 1992.[5] In that year, Gentry published a taxonomic revision of Tabebuia in Flora Neotropica. He divided Tabebuia into 10 species groups, including all of the species now placed in Roseodendron and Handroanthus. His group 1 corresponds to Roseodendron.

In 2007, a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences resolved Roseodendron as one member of a tetratomy that is sister to Sparattosperma, the most basal clade in the Tabebuia alliance.[6] A phylogenetic tree can be seen at Bignoniaceae. The Tabebuia alliance is an informally named monophyletic group that is not placed at any taxonomic rank. It consists of genera that had formerly been placed in the tribe Tecomeae.[16]
References

David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4
Roseodendron In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
George W. Staples and Derral R. Herbst. 2005. "A Tropical Garden Flora" Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu, HI, USA. ISBN 978-1-58178-039-0
Alwyn H. Gentry. 1992. "Bignoniaceae: Part II (Tribe Tecomeae)". Flora Neotropica Monograph 25(part 2):1-373.
Susan O. Grose and Richard G. Olmstead. 2007. "Evolution of a Charismatic Neotropical Clade: Molecular Phylogeny of Tabebuia s.l., Crescentieae, and Allied Genera (Bignoniaceae)". Systematic Botany 32(3):650-659.
Susan O. Grose and Richard G. Olmstead. 2007. "Taxonomic Revisions in the Polyphyletic Genus Tabebuia s.l. (Bignoniaceae)". Systematic Botany 32(3):660-670.
Roseodendron in International Plant Names Index. (see External links below).
Joseph N. Rose. 1892. Botanical Gazette; Paper of Botanical Notes. 17: 418, tab. 26 (since 1992, International Journal of Plant Sciences).
Elbert L. Little, Jr. and Roger G. Skolmen. 1989. Common Forest Trees of Hawaii. United States Forest Service. pdf by ctahr (2005). (See External links below).
Sidney Fay Blake. 1918. title?. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 53( ):50.
Chuck Griffith. 2005. Dictionary of Botanical Epithets (website). (See External links below).
Russell J. Seibert. 1940. "Botany of the Maya Area". Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 522:392.
Russell J. Seibert. 1940. "New names in Cybistax and Tabebuia". Tropical Woods 63:7-8.
Faustino Miranda-Gonzalez. 1965. "Estudios acerca de arboles y arbustos de America Tropical principamente de Mexico". Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de Mexico 29( ):34-49.
Richard G. Olmstead, Michelle L. Zjhra, Lúcia G. Lohmann, Susan O. Grose, and Andrew J. Eckert. 2009. "A molecular phylogeny and classification of Bignoniaceae". American Journal of Botany 96(9):1731-1743. doi:10.3732/ajb.0900004

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