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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Ordo: Vitales
Cladus: Eurosids I - Eurosids II
Name

rosids, Rosidae (sensu Sun et al., 2016)
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Sun, M., Naeem, R., Su, J.X., Cao, Z.Y., Burleigh, J.G., Soltis, P.S., Soltis, D.E. & Chen, Z.D. 2016. Phylogeny of the Rosidae: A dense taxon sampling analysis. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54(4): 363–391. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12211 Open access Reference page.
rosids – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (Following APG classification)

Vernacular names
العربية: وردانيات
azərbaycanca: Rozid
български: Розиди
català: Ròsida
čeština: Rosids
Cymraeg: Rosid
Deutsch: Rosiden
English: Rosids
Esperanto: Rozedoj
español: Rósidas
فارسی: رزیدها
suomi: Rosidae
français: Rosidées
हिन्दी: रोज़िड
italiano: Rosidi
日本語: バラ類
한국어: 장미군
македонски: Розиди
Bahasa Melayu: Rosids
Nederlands: Rosids
polski: Różowe
português: Rosídeas
русский: Розиды
slovenčina: Ružové
తెలుగు: రోసిడ్స్
ไทย: โรสิด
Tagalog: Rosid
українська: Розиди
Tiếng Việt: Nhánh hoa Hồng
中文: 蔷薇类植物

The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species,[2] more than a quarter of all angiosperms.[3]

The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families.[4]

Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago.[5][6]

Today’s forests are highly dominated by rosid species, which in turn helped with diversification in many other living lineages. Additionally, rosid herbs and shrubs are also a significant part of arctic/alpine, temperate floras, aquatics, desert plants, and parasites.[7]

Name

The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling.[8] The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN. The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Saxifragales and Vitales in the rosids.[9] Others excluded both of these orders.[10] The circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales.
Relationships

The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade.[2][10] This is one of three groups that comprisee the Pentapetalae (core eudicots minus Gunnerales),[11] the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids (Berberidopsidales, Caryophyllales, Santalales, and asterids).[10]
Classification

The rosids consist of two groups: the order Vitales and the eurosids (true rosids). The eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: fabids (Fabidae, eurosids I) and malvids (Malvidae, eurosids II).[10]
Orders

The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are eight orders in fabids and eight orders in malvids. Some of the orders have only recently been recognized.[10] These are Vitales,[12] Zygophyllales,[13] Crossosomatales,[14] Picramniales,[15] and Huerteales.[16]
Phylogeny

The phylogeny of rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website.[10]

rosids 

Vitales

eurosids 
fabids 

Zygophyllales

COM clade 

Celastrales

Malpighiales

Oxalidales

nitrogen‑fixing clade 

Fabales

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales

malvids

Geraniales

Myrtales

Crossosomatales

Picramniales

Sapindales

Huerteales

Brassicales

Malvales

The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants (which have root nodules containing nitrogen fixing bacteria, helping the plant grow in poor soils). Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however.[17]
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (10 March 2009), "Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (10): 3853–8, Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3853W, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257, PMID 19223592
Scotland, Robert W.; Wortley, Alexandra H. (2003), "How many species of seed plants are there?", Taxon, 52 (1): 101–4, doi:10.2307/3647306, JSTOR 3647306
Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Peter K. Endress; Mark W. Chase (2005), Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, ISBN 978-0-87893-817-9
Davies, T.J.; Barraclough, T.G.; Chase, M.W.; Soltis, P.S.; Soltis, D.E.; Savolainen, V. (2004), "Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (7): 1904–9, Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.1904D, doi:10.1073/pnas.0308127100, PMC 357025, PMID 14766971
Magallón, Susana; Castillo, Amanda (2009), "Angiosperm diversification through time", American Journal of Botany, 96 (1): 349–365, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800060, PMID 21628193
Folk, Ryan A.; Sun, Miao; Soltis, Pamela S.; Smith, Stephen A.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Guralnick, Robert P. (March 2018). "Challenges of comprehensive taxon sampling in comparative biology: Wrestling with rosids". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 433–445. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1059. ISSN 0002-9122.
Reveal, James L. (2008), "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants", Home page of James L. Reveal and C. Rose Broome
Burleigh, J. Gordon; Hilu, Khidir W.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2009), File 7, "Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms", BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9: 61, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-61, PMC 2674047, PMID 19292928
Stevens, Peter F. (2001), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
Cantino, Philip D.; Doyle, James A.; Graham, Sean W.; Judd, Walter S.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Donoghue, Michael J. (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846, doi:10.2307/25065865, JSTOR 25065865
Reveal, James L. (1995), "Newly required suprageneric names in vascular plants", Phytologia, 79 (2): 68–76 See p. 72
Chalk, L. (1983), "Wood structure", in Metcalfe, C.R.; Chalk, L. (eds.), Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction, Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, vol. II (2nd ed.), Clarendon Press, pp. 1-51 [1-2 by C. R. Melcalfe], ISBN 978-0-19-854559-0
Kubitzki, Klaus, ed. (2007), "Introduction to Crossosomatales", Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. IX, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-32219-1
Hutchinson, John (1979) [1973], The Families of Flowering Plants (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 9783874291606
Worberg, Andreas; Alford, Mac H.; Quandt, Dietmar; Borsch, Thomas (2009), "Huerteales sister to Brassicales plus Malvales, and newly circumscribed to include Dipentodon, Gerrardina, Huertea, Perrottetia, and Tapiscia", Taxon, 58 (2): 468–478, doi:10.1002/tax.582012
Wall, L. (2000), "The actinorhizal symbiosis", Journal of Plant Growth and Regulation, 19 (2): 167–182, doi:10.1007/s003440000027, PMID 11038226, S2CID 12887261

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