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Rubus idaeus

Rubus idaeus (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Rosoideae
Tribus: Rubeae
Genus: Rubus
Subgenus: R. subg. Idaeobatus
Species: Rubus idaeus
Subspecies: R. i. subsp. idaeus – R. i. subsp. melanolasius
Name

Rubus idaeus L.
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 492. Reference page.
Rubus idaeus at the Euro+Med PlantBase

Vernacular names
Ænglisc: Hindberge
aragonés: Chordón
العربية: عليق أوروبي
azərbaycanca: Adi moruq
башҡортса: Ҡурай еләге
беларуская: Маліна звычайная
български: Малина
català: Gerd
kaszëbsczi: Malëna
čeština: ostružiník maliník
Cymraeg: Llwyn Mafon
dansk: Almindelig hindbær
Deutsch: Himbeere
Ελληνικά: Σμέουρο
English: Raspberry
Esperanto: Frambo
español: Frambuesa
eesti: Vaarikas
euskara: Mugurdiondo
فارسی: رزبری قرمز
suomi: Vadelma
Nordfriisk: Himbei
français: Framboise
Gàidhlig: sùbhag
galego: Framboeseiro
Gaelg: Soo crouw
עברית: פטל אדום
hrvatski: Malina
hornjoserbsce: Čerwjeny malenowc
magyar: málna
հայերեն: Ազնվամորի
italiano: Lampone
日本語: ラズベリー
ქართული: ჟოლო
қазақша: Малина
перем коми: Ӧмидз
kurdî: Tûşêmî
кыргызча: Дан куурай
Lëtzebuergesch: Hambier
lietuvių: Paprastoji avietė
latviešu: Meža avene
мокшень: Инези
norsk bokmål: Bringebær
Nedersaksies: Hienebees
Nederlands: Framboos
norsk nynorsk: Bringebær
ирон: Мæнæргъы
polski: malina właściwa
português: Framboesa
română: Zmeur
русский: Малина обыкновенная
саха тыла: Биэ эмиийэ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Malina
slovenčina: ostružina malinová
slovenščina: Malinjak
српски / srpski: Малина
svenska: Hallon
Türkçe: Ahududu
удмурт: Эмезь
українська: Малина
vèneto: Franbołer
vepsän kel’: Babarm
walon: Amponî
中文: 覆盆子

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally European red raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberry species) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.[2][3]

Taxonomy

A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var. strigosus, is more commonly treated as a distinct species, Rubus strigosus (American red raspberry), as is done here.[4] Red-fruited cultivated raspberries, even in North America, are generally Rubus idaeus or horticultural derivatives of hybrids of R. idaeus and R. strigosus; these plants are all addressed in the present article.
Description

Plants of Rubus idaeus are generally perennials, which bear biennial stems ("canes") from a perennial root system. In its first year, a new, unbranched stem ("primocane") grows vigorously to its full height of 1.5–2.5 m (5.0–8.3 feet), bearing large pinnately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets, but usually no flowers. In its second year (as a "floricane"), a stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets. The flowers are produced in late spring on short racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower about 1 cm (0.4 inches) diameter with five white petals. The fruit is red, edible, and sweet but tart-flavoured, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. In raspberries (various species of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries and most other species of Rubus, the drupelets stay attached to the core. [5][6][7][8]
Biotope

As a wild plant, R. idaeus typically grows in forests, forming open stands under a tree canopy, and denser stands in clearings. In the south of its range (southern Europe and central Asia), it occurs only at high altitudes in mountains.[7] The species name idaeus refers to its occurrence on Mount Ida near Troy in northwest Turkey, where the ancient Greeks were most familiar with it.[8]
Cultivation and uses
A red raspberry plant in a nursery in Cranford, New Jersey.
Raspberries

R. idaeus is grown primarily for its fruits, but occasionally for its leaves, roots, or other parts.
Fruits
Main article: Raspberry

The fruit of R. idaeus is an important food crop, though most modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[8] The fruits of wild plants have a sweet taste and are very aromatic.
Leaves and other parts
Main article: Red raspberry leaf

Red raspberries contains 31 μg/100 g of folate.[9] Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.[10][11]

Young roots of Rubus idaeus prevented kidney stone formation in a mouse model of hyperoxaluria.[12] Tiliroside from raspberry is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine.[13]

Raspberry fruit may protect the liver.[14]
Chemistry

Vitamin C and phenolics are present in red raspberries. Most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside) and cyanidin-3-glucoside, the two ellagitannins sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamate.[15]

Polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds have antioxidant effects in vitro,[16][17] but have no proven antioxidant effect in humans.[18] Raspberry ketones are derived from various fruits and plants, not raspberries, and are marketed as having weight loss benefits.[19] There is no clinical evidence for this effect in humans.[20]
See also

Chambord (liqueur) – raspberry-based liqueur
List of culinary fruits

References

"Rubus idaeus L.". Richard Pankhurst et al. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh – via The Plant List.
"Rubus idaeus". Flora Europaea.
"Rubus idaeus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
"Rubus idaeus var. strigosus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
"Rubus idaeus". Flora of NW Europe. Archived from the original on 6 December 2007.
Lu, Lingdi; Boufford, David E. "Rubus idaeus". Flora of China. Vol. 9 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Blamey, M.; Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2..
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5..
Martin, H; Comeskey, D; Simpson, RM; Laing, WA; McGhie, TK (2010). "Quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay". Anal Biochem. 402 (2): 137–145. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.032. PMID 20361923.
Nutr Res. 30(11):777-782
McDougall, GJ; Ross, HA; Ikeji, M; Stewart, D (2008). "Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro". J Agric Food Chem. 56 (9): 3016–3023. doi:10.1021/jf073469n. PMID 18412361.
Ghalayini, IF; Al-Ghazo, MA; Harfeil, MN (2011). "Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice". Int Braz J Urol. 37 (2): 259–267. doi:10.1590/S1677-55382011000200013. PMID 21557843.
Lu, YH; Chen, J; Wei, DZ; Wang, ZT; Tao, XY (2009). "Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of tiliroside from raspberry". J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 24 (5): 1154–1160. doi:10.1080/14756360802694252. PMID 19772488.
Gião, MS; Pestana, D; Faria, A; Guimarães, JT; Pintado, ME; Calhau, C; Azevedo, I; Malcata, FX (2010). "Effects of extracts of selected medicinal plants upon hepatic oxidative stress". J Med Food. 13 (1): 131–136. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0323. PMID 20136446.
Mullen, W.; Stewart, A. J.; Lean, M. E.; Gardner, P.; Duthie, G. G.; Crozier, A. (2002). "Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (18): 5197–5201. doi:10.1021/jf020141f. PMID 12188629.
Godevac, D; Tesević, V; Vajs, V; Milosavljević, S; Stanković, M (2009). "Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes". Food Chem Toxicol. 47 (11): 2853–2859. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.09.006. PMID 19748543.
Aiyer, HS; Kichambare, S; Gupta, RC (2008). "Prevention of oxidative DNA damage by bioactive berry components". Nutr Cancer. 60 (Suppl 1): 36–42. doi:10.1080/01635580802398448. PMID 19003579. S2CID 205494444.
Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
"The Sweet Taste of Weight Loss". Ohio State University Food Innovation Center. 2014. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014.
"Raspberry Ketone". WebMD.

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