Plants, Fine Art Prints

- Art Gallery -

Rudbeckia laciniata

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Rudbeckiinae
Genus: Rudbeckia
Sectio: R. sect. Macrocline
Species: Rudbeckia laciniata
Varieties: R. l. var. ampla – R. l. var. bipinnata – R. l. var. heterophylla – R. l. var. humilis
Name

Rudbeckia laciniata L., 1753
Synonyms

Helianthus laciniatus (L.) E. H. L. Krause
Rudbeckia digitata Mill.
Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata (Mill.) Fiori
Rudbeckia quinata Mill.
Tithonia laciniata (L.) Raeusch.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
North America

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 906. Reference page.

Links

International Plant Names Index. 2018. Rudbeckia laciniata. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 11 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Rudbeckia laciniata in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 11.
Tropicos.org 2018. Rudbeckia laciniata. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 11 Feb. 2018.
Hassler, M. 2018. Rudbeckia laciniata. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 11. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Rudbeckia laciniata in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
čeština: Třapatka dřípatá
Deutsch: Schlitzblättriger Sonnenhut
English: golden glow. thimbleweed, greenheaded coneflower, cutleaf coneflower
suomi: Syyspäivänhattu, kultapäivänhattu, kultapallo
magyar: Magas kúpvirág
Nederlands: slipbladige rudbeckia
norsk: Gjerdesolhatt
slovenčina: rudbekia strapatá

Rudbeckia laciniata, the cutleaf coneflower,[1] is a species of flowering plant in the aster family Asteraceae. It is native to North America, where it is widespread in both Canada and the United States.[2] Its natural habitat is wet sites in flood plains, along stream banks, and in moist forests.[3] Common names other than cutleaf coneflower include cutleaf, goldenglow, green-headed coneflower, tall coneflower, sochan and thimbleweed.

The Latin specific epithet laciniata refers to the pinnately divided leaves.[4]

Description
Growing in garden

It is a robust herbaceous perennial growing up to 3 m (10 ft) tall. It has broadly ovate and somewhat glaucous leaves that are often deeply dissected. The alternate leaves are usually divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The smooth or hairy leaf blade is simple or one to two-pinnate. The leaflets are lobed three to eleven times . The leaf margin is smooth to roughly serrated. The lower leaves are 15 to 50 inches long and 10 to 25 inches wide. The upper leaves are 8 to 40 centimeters long and 3 to 20 centimeters wide. Long rhizomes are formed as persistence organs with fibrous roots. The stem is bare.
Inflorescence

The composite flowers are produced in late summer and autumn. The disc flowers are green to yellowish green, while the rays are pale yellow. In umbrella-clustered total inflorescences, two to 25 cup-shaped partial inflorescences stand together. The flower heads, which have a diameter of 7 to 15 centimeters, stand on long stems. 8 to 15 irregularly arranged, foliage-like, smooth to hairy bracts have a length of up to 2 centimeters and usually a ciliate border. The inflorescence base is almost spherical to conical. The chaff leaves are 3 to 7 millimeters long.[5]

In a flower basket there are eight to twelve ray-flowers (ray-flowers) and 150 to over 300 tubular-flowers (disc-shaped flowers). The golden-yellow ray-flowers are 1.5 to 5 centimeters long and 4 to 14 millimeters wide and are later repulsed. The yellow to yellowish-green (olive-green) tubular flowers are 9 to 30 millimeters in length and 10 to 23 millimeters in diameter, with yellow corolla lobes 3.5 to 5 millimeters long. The stylus branches have a length of 1 to 1.5 millimeters.

The 3 to 4.5 millimeter long achenes have a crown-shaped or four up to 1.5 millimeter long scales consisting of pappus.
Taxonomy

Up to six varieties of Rudbeckia laciniata are currently recognized. The varieties ampla and heterophylla are considered to be the most distinctive, while the others less so. There is variation in treatment among authors, with the less distinctive varieties sometimes being subsumed into laciniata, and variety ampla sometimes recognized at the species level.[3][6]

The six varieties are:[7]

R. laciniata var. ampla - Native west of the Great Plains, into to the Rocky Mountains.
R. laciniata var. bipinnata - Native to New England and the Mid-Atlantic area.
R. laciniata var. digitata - Native to the Southeastern Coastal Plain.
R. laciniata var. heterophylla - Endemic to Levy County, Florida.
R. laciniata var. humilis - Native to the southern Appalachian Mountains.
R. laciniata var. laciniata - Widespread and common, native across eastern North America.

Cultivation

Rudbeckia laciniata is widely cultivated in gardens and for cut flowers. Numerous cultivars have been developed, of which 'Herbstsonne' ("Autumn sun") and ‘Starcadia Razzle Dazzle’[8] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[9][10] The cultivar 'Goldquelle' features double yellow, pom-pom blooms that are 8 cm across.[11]

Rudbeckia laciniata has long been cultivated as an ornamental plant and came to Paris in the private garden of Vespasias Robin at the beginning of the 17th century. Caspar Bauhin also received this ornamental plant from Robin in 1622 , who described it as 'Doronicum americanum laciniato folio'. The first garden in Germany in which it is recorded is Altdorf 1646. The double-flowered form, which is mainly cultivated, has been known since around 1894. The first naturalizations on river banks in Central Europe were observed in the 18th century. Anton Johann Krocker reported about it in 1787 in Queistal near Flinsburg in eastern Upper Lusatia. As an ornamental plant, varieties are used in parks and gardens in temperate areas, for example also filled forms. In Europe, Rudbeckia laciniata became wild in various countries. Besides Europe, Rudbeckia laciniata is a neophyte in China and New Zealand. [6][12]

The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center[13] notes that " Because it spreads rampantly by underground stems, cut-leaf coneflower is only appropriate for large sites."
Uses

Traditionally, the young leaves have been gathered from the wild and eaten in the early spring. They are greatly favored as a potherb (cooked). Though some references state the use of this plant as salad greens (raw),[14] traditional use is as cooked greens.[15][16] This is assumed to be done to remove toxins. However, there is little evidence of their presence. One report cites circumstantial evidence of poisoning to horses, sheep and pigs.[17]

References

USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Rudbeckia laciniata". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
"Rudbeckia laciniata". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
Urbatsch, Lowell E.; Cox, Patricia B. (2006). "Rudbeckia laciniata". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 21. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Yatskievych, George (2006). Flora of Missouri, Volume 2. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 544.
Alan Weakley (2015). "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
"RHS Plantfinder - Rudbeckia laciniata 'Starcadia Razzle Dazzle'". Retrieved 11 October 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Rudbeckia laciniata 'Herbstsonne'". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 93. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
Rudbeckia laciniata 'Goldquelle' (d) www.rhs.org.uk The Royal Horticultural Society 2021
Gerhard Wagenitz: Rudbeckia laciniata. In: Gerhard Wagenitz (Hrsg.): Illustrated flora of Central Europe. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. Founded by Gustav Hegi. 2nd, completely revised edition. Volume VI. Part 3: Angiospermae, Dicotyledones 4 (Compositae 1, General Part, Eupatorium - Achillea) . Paul Parey, Berlin / Hamburg 1979, ISBN 3-489-84020-8 , pp. 242–244 (published in deliveries 1964–1979).
"Rudbeckia laciniata". Native Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin.
Banks, William. 2004. Plants of the Cherokee. Great Smoky Mts. Assn.: Gatlinburg, Tennessee.
Hamel, Paul; Chiltoskey, Mary U. (1975). Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva Herald Publishing.
Witthoft, John (1977). "Cherokee Indian Use of Potherbs". Journal of Cherokee Studies. 2 (2): 251.
Kingsbury, J.M. (1964). Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World