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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: Andropogoneae
Subtribus: Saccharinae
Genus: Saccharum
Species: S. alopecuroides – S. angustifolium – S. asperum – S. baldwinii – S. beccarii – S. brevibarbe – S. coarctatum – S. contortum – S. fallax – S. filifolium – S. formosanum – S. giganteum – S. griffithii – S. kajkaiense – S. longisetosum – S. maximum – S. narenga – S. officinarum – S. robustum – S. sikkimense – S. sinense – S. spontaneum – S. stewartii – S. villosum – S. wardii – S. williamsii

Species in synonymy: S. rufipilum
Name

Saccharum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 54 (1753) nom. cons.

Type species: Saccharum officinarum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 54 (1753)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Saccharifera Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 131. (1812), nom. superfl.
Heterotypic
Erianthus Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 54. (1803) pro parte inc. Type see also Lasiorhachis
Syllepis E.Fourn., Mexic. Pl. 2: 52. (1886)
Narenga Bor, Indian Forester 66: 267. (1940)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 54. Reference page.
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards) GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Saccharum. Published online. Accessed 24 Sept. 2013.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Saccharum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Dec. 29. Reference page.
Hodkinson, T.R., Chase, M.W., Lledó, D.M., Salamin, N. & Renvoize, S.A. (2002) Phylogenetics of Miscanthus, Saccharum and related genera (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on DNA sequences from ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacers. Journal of Plant Research 115 (5): 381–392. DOI: 10.1007/s10265-002-0049-3 Full text available from ResearchGate Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Saccharum. Published online. Accessed: 2 Dec. 2013.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Saccharum. Published online. Accessed: 2013 Dec. 2.
Welker, C.A., McKain, M.R., Vorontsova, M.S., Peichoto, M.C. & Kellogg, E.A. 2019. Plastome phylogenomics of sugarcane and relatives confirms the segregation of the genus Tripidium (Poaceae: Andropogoneae). Taxon 68(2): 246-267. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12030 Paywall ResearchGate Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Saccharum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 2 Dec. 2013.
Vorontsova, M.S., Besnard, G., Razanatsoa, J. & Hackel, J. 2020. The endemic ‘sugar canes’ of Madagascar (Poaceae, Saccharinae: Lasiorhachis) are close relatives of sorghum. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 192(1): 148-164. DOI: 10.1093/botlinnean/boz067 Reference page.

Vernacular names
Akan: Ahewde
català: Canya de sucre
čeština: Cukrová třtina
dansk: Sukkerrør
Deutsch: Zuckerrohr
English: Sugarcane
Esperanto: Sukerkano
euskara: azukre-kanabera
suomi: Sokeriruo'ot
Nordfriisk: Sokerröör, Sokerraid
français: Canne à sucre
galego: Cana de azucre
hrvatski: Šećerna trska
magyar: Cukornád
lietuvių: Cukranendrė
македонски: Шеќерна трска
Nederlands: Suikerriet
norsk: Sukkerrør
polski: Trzcina cukrowa
português: Cana-de-açúcar
русский: Сахарный тростник
中文: 甘蔗

Saccharum is a genus of tall perennial plants of the broomsedge tribe within the grass family.[5]

The genus is widespread across tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions in Africa, Eurasia, Australia, the Americas, and assorted oceanic islands. Several species are cultivated and naturalized in areas outside their native habitats.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Saccharum includes the sugarcanes. They have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are generally rich in sugar, and measure two to six m (6 to 19 ft) tall. All sugarcane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids.

Species

As of September 2021, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species:[4]

Saccharum alopecuroidum (L.) Nutt. - southeastern USA
Saccharum angustifolium (Nees) Trin. - South America
Saccharum asperum (Nees) Steud. - South America
Saccharum baldwinii Spreng. - southeastern USA
Saccharum beccarii (Stapf) Cope - Sumatra
Saccharum brevibarbe (Michx.) Pers. - southeastern USA
Saccharum coarctatum (Fern.) R. Webster - southeastern USA
Saccharum contortum (Baldwin ex Elliott) Nutt. - southeastern USA
Saccharum fallax Balansa - China, Assam, southeast Asia
Saccharum filifolium Steud. - Afghanistan, Himalayas
Saccharum formosanum (Stapf) Ohwi - southern China
Saccharum giganteum (Walt.) Pers. - southeastern USA, Cuba, Jamaica, Paraguay, Argentina
Saccharum griffithii Munro ex Aitch. - from Yemen to Bangladesh
Saccharum intermedium Welker & Peichoto
Saccharum kajkaiense (Melderis) Melderis - Oman, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan
Saccharum longesetosum (Andersson) V.Naray. ex Bor - China, Himalayas, Indochina
Saccharum maximum (Brongn.) Trin. - Pacific Islands
Saccharum narenga (Nees ex Steud.) Hack. - China, Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, Ethiopia
Saccharum officinarum L. - New Guinea; naturalized in many warm places
Saccharum robustum Brandes & Jesw. ex Grassl - New Guinea
Saccharum rufipilum Steud. - China, Indian Subcontinent, Indochina
Saccharum sikkimense (Hook.f.) V.Naray. ex Bor - eastern Himalayas
Saccharum × sinense Roxb. – China
Saccharum spontaneum L. - Asia, Africa, Sicily, Papuasia
Saccharum stewartii Rajesw., R.R.Rao & Arti Garg - western Himalayas
Saccharum velutinum (Holttum) Cope - Peninsular Malaysia
Saccharum villosum Steud. - South America, Mesoamerica
Saccharum wardii (Bor) Bor ex Cope - Assam, Bhutan, Myanmar
Saccharum williamsii (Bor) Bor ex Cope - Nepal

Placed in Lasiorhachis by Plants of the World Online as of September 2021:[14]

Saccharum hildebrandtii (Hack.) Clayton → Lasiorhachis hildebrandtii
Saccharum perrieri (A.Camus) Clayton. → Lasiorhachis perrieri
Saccharum viguieri (A.Camus) Clayton → Lasiorhachis viguieri

Placed in Tripidium by Plants of the World Online as of September 2021:[15]

Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. - East + South + Southeast Asia; New Guinea → Tripidium arundinaceum
Saccharum bengalense Retz. - India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan → Tripidium bengalense
Saccharum kanashiroi (Ohwi) Ohwi - Ryukyu Islands → Tripidium kanashiroi
Saccharum procerum Roxb. - China, Himalayas, Indochina → Tripidium procerum
Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. - Europe, Asia, Africa → Tripidium ravennae
Saccharum strictum (Host) Spreng. - from Italy to Iran → Tripidium strictum

Formerly included

Numerous species are now considered better suited in other genera: Andropogon, Chloris, Digitaria, Eriochrysis, Eulalia, Gynerium, Hemarthria, Imperata, Lophopogon, Melinis, Miscanthus, Panicum, Pappophorum, Paspalum, Perotis, Pogonatherum, Pseudopogonatherum, Spodiopogon, and Tricholaena.[6]
See also

Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

References

lectotype designated by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot. 119 (1929)
Tropicos, Saccharum L.
1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
"Saccharum L.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2021-09-05.
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 54 in Latin
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 576 甘蔗属 gan zhe shu Saccharum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 54. 1753.
Flora of Pakistan, Saccharum Linn., Sp. Pl. 1: 54. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5; 28.1754
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
Catasus Guerra, L. 1997. Las gramíneas (Poaceae) de Cuba, I. Fontqueria 46: [i–ii], 1–259.
Davidse, G. & R. W. Pohl. 1994. 146. Saccharum L. 6: 378–379. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
Phillips, S. 1995. Poaceae (Gramineae). Flora of Ethiopia 7: i–xx, 1–420.
Welker, C. A. D. & H. M. Longhi-Wagner. 2012. The genera Eriochrysis P. Beauv., Imperata Cirillo and Saccharum L. (Poaceae - Andropogoneae - Saccharinae) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Botany 35(1): 87–105.
"Lasiorhachis (Hack.) Stapf". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2021-09-05.
"Tripidium H.Scholz". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2021-09-04.

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