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Salvia aethiopis

Salvia aethiopis (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Salviinae
Genus: Salvia
Subgenus: S. subg. Sclarea
Sectio: S. sect. Aethiopis
Species: Salvia aethiopis
Name

Salvia aethiopis L., Sp. Pl. 27 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Aethiopis vera Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon sér. 2, 17: 134 (1869) [1].
Sclarea aethiopis (L.) Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 2 (1768).
Heterotypic
Salvia aethiopis [unranked] integrifolia Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 520 (1866) BHL.
Salvia idanensis Gand., Fl. Lyon. 171 (1875).
Salvia kochiana Kunze, Index Seminum (LZ) 1847: 4 (1847).
Salvia lanata Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med.: 52 (1812).
Salvia leuconeura Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2 4: 20 (1859).
Sclarea lanata Moench, Methodus 374 (1794).

References

Castroviejo, S. et al. (eds.) 2015. Salvia aethiopis in Flora Ibérica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica, e Islas Baleares. Published online. Accessed: 2015 Sept 13. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 27. Reference page.
Euro+Med 2006 onwards: Salvia aethiopis in Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published online. Accessed: 2015 Sept 13.

Vernacular names
English: Mediterranean sage
suomi: Vanukesalvia
français: Sauge d'Éthiopie
magyar: Magyar zsálya

Salvia aethiopis is a species of perennial plant known by the common names Mediterranean sage or African sage. It is best known as a noxious weed, particularly in the western United States. It is native to Eurasia and was probably introduced to North America as a contaminant of alfalfa seed. It is a weed of rangelands and pastures. It is unpalatable to livestock, it disrupts native floral communities, and it becomes a physical nuisance due to the similarity of the persistent dried stems to tumbleweed. The weevil Phrydiuchus tau is used as an agent of biological pest control on this plant.

Boya and Valderde examined a sample of Salvia aethiopis. Acetone extracts of the root furnished a new orthoquinone diterpene, aethiopinone (4,5-seco-5,10-friedo-abieta-4(18),5,6,8,13-pentaen-l1,12-dione). This compound was isolated in 0.15% yield from the dry roots.[1]
Chemical structure of aethiopinone
Control

S. aethiopis may be easily controlled mechanically[2][3] and chemically.[2] It can also be biologically controlled with Phrydiuchus tau, a weevil.[3]
References

Boya, Ma Teresa; Valverde, Serafin (1981). "AN ORTHOQUINONE ISOLATED FROM SALVlA AETHIOPIS". Phytochemistry. 20 (6): 1367–1368. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(81)80041-6.
"Weed Report - Salvia aethiopis L. - Mediterranean sage". Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States (PDF). 2013. pp. 1–3.
"Mediterranean Sage Salvia aethiopis". Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. Retrieved 2021-03-02.

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