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Salvia apiana

Salvia apiana (Photo: *)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Salviinae
Genus: Salvia
Subgenus: S. subg. Sclarea
Sectio: S. sect. Echinosphace
Species: Salvia apiana
Name

Salvia apiana Jeps., 1908
Synonyms

Basionym
Audibertia polystachya Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 314 (1833).
Homotypic
Ramona polystachya (Benth.) Greene, Pittonia 2: 235 (1892).
Audibertiella polystachya (Benth.) Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 73 (1894).
Salvia californica Jeps., Fl. W. Calif.: 460 (1901), nom. illeg.
Salvia apiana var. typica Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 26: 25 (1927), not validly publ.
Heterotypic
Salvia apiana var. compacta Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 26: 25 (1927).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Southwestern USA
California
Regional: Mexico
Mexico (Baja California).

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Jepson, W.L., 1908. Muhlenbergia; a Journal of Botany. Lancaster, PA, and Los Gatos, CA 3:144.
Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. 2003. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [unavailable for the public] Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Salvia apiana in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 May 07. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Salvia apiana. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 May 07. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2022. Salvia apiana. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 07 May 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Salvia apiana. Published online. Accessed: May 07 2022.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Weißer Salbei
English: White sage
español: Salvia blanca
français: Sauge blanche
Türkçe: Beyaz ada çayı

Salvia apiana, the white sage, bee sage, or sacred sage is an evergreen perennial shrub that is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, found mainly in the coastal sage scrub habitat of Southern California and Baja California, on the western edges of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts.[1]

Description

Salvia apiana is a shrub that reaches 1.3 to 1.5 metres (4.3 to 4.9 ft) tall and 1.3 metres (4.3 ft) wide. The whitish evergreen leaves are 3 to 9 cm (1.2 to 3.5 in) and persist throughout the year; they are opposite with crenulate margins. Leaves are thickly covered in hairs that trigger oil glands; when rubbed oils and resins are released, producing a strong aroma.[2] The flowers are very attractive to bees, which is described by the specific epithet, apiana. Several 1 to 1.3 metres (3.3 to 4.3 ft) flower stalks, sometimes pinkish colored, grow above the foliage in the spring. Flowers are white to pale lavender.[1]
Distribution and habitat

White sage is a common plant that requires well-drained dry soil, full sun, and little water. The plant occurs on dry slopes in coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and yellow-pine forests of Southern California to Baja California at less than 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) elevation.[1]
Ecology

Flowers attract varied pollinators including bumblebees, carpenter bees, Bombyliidae, and hummingbirds.[3] However most of these species are ineffective pollinators, with only three species of carpenter bee and one species of bumblebee actually leading to routine pollination.[2]
Pests and disease

The terpenoids and essential oils found in white sage likely deter herbivory.[2]
Uses
Salvia apiana dried flower - MHNT

Salvia apiana is widely used by Native American peoples on the Pacific coast of the United States. The seed is a primary, traditional ingredient in pinole, a staple food. The Cahuilla people have traditionally harvested large quantities of the seed, then mixed it with wheat flour and sugar to make gruel and biscuits. The leaves and stems are a traditional food among the Chumash people and neighboring communities.

For healing use, several tribes have traditionally used the seed for removing foreign objects from the eye, similar to the way that Clary sage seeds have been used in Europe. A tea from the roots is traditional among the Cahuilla women for healing and strength after childbirth. Different parts of the plant are also used in ceremonies by several Native American cultures.[4]
Cultivation

Salvia apiana prefers a sunny location, well draining soil, and good air circulation. It easily hybridizes with other Salvia species, particularly Salvia leucophylla and Salvia clevelandii.[1]
Controversy

Over-harvest of wild white sage populations is a concern held by many Native American groups and conservationists.[5] Over harvesting is negatively affecting the wild population and distribution of white sage.[5] It is believed that illegal harvest is occurring on public lands and non-permitted harvesting is also taking place on private land. In June 2018, four people were arrested for the illegal harvest of 400 pounds of white sage in North Etiwanda Preserve of Rancho Cucamonga, California.[6] Deputies said in a statement that white sage is protected by the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which is a common misconception. Collecting plants without permission from a landowner or land manager is illegal.[7] Although white sage is not listed on the Endangered Species List,[8] conservationists are still concerned about the future survival and distribution of the species.[5]

References

Clebsch, Betsy; Carol D. Barner (2003). The New Book of Salvias. Timber Press. pp. 34–36. ISBN 978-0-88192-560-9.
"Salvia apiana Jepson" (PDF). United States Forest Service. 13 October 2010.
"White Sage, Salvia apiana". calscape.org. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center. "Salvia apiana Jepson" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture Plant Guide. USDA. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
Leopold, Susan (24 June 2019). "What is going on with White Sage?". United Plant Savers. Retrieved 21 Oct 2019.
"400 pounds of endangered sage seized, 4 arrested at North Etiwanda Preserve". Press Enterprise. 2018-06-26. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
"Law section". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
"USFWS Federally Endangered Species: Flowering plants". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

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