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Salvia pratensis

Salvia pratensis

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Salviinae
Genus: Salvia
Subgenus: S. subg. Sclarea
Sectio: S. sect. Plethiosphace
Species: Salvia pratensis
Subspecies: S. p. subsp. haematodes – S. p. subsp. laciniosa – S. p. subsp. pozegensis – S. p. subsp. pratensis
Name

Salvia pratensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 25 (1753).
Hybrids

Salvia × sylvestris

Synonyms

Homotypic
Sclarea pratensis (L.) Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 4 (1768).
Salvia pratensis var. caerulea Schrad., Fl. Germ. 63 (1806), nom. inval.
Plethiosphace pratensis (L.) Opiz, Seznam: 75 (1852).
Gallitrichum pratense (L.) Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 134 (1869).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe
Great Britain.
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Corse, France, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Regional: Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Continental: Northern America (introduced)
Regional: Eastern Canada
Ontario.
Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Washington, Wyoming.
Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Kansas, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania.
Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico.
Regional: Southeastern U.S.A.
Delaware, Kentucky, Virginia.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 25. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Salvia pratensis in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2015 Sept 19. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Salvia pratensis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 May 15. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2022. Salvia pratensis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 15 May 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Salvia pratensis. Published online. Accessed: May 15 2022.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Çəmənlik adaçayı
беларуская: Шалфей лугавы
català: Tarró
čeština: šalvěj luční
Cymraeg: Saets y waun, Clari'r maes
dansk: Eng-Salvie
Deutsch: Wiesen-Salbei
English: meadow clary, meadow sage, introduced sage
español: salvia de prado, gallocresta, gallocresta rústica, gallocresta silvestre, hormigón de prados, salvia, salvia de los prados, salvia de prados, salvia pratense, savia, tárrago
eesti: Aassalvei
فارسی: مریم چمنی
suomi: Niittysalvia
français: Sauge des prés, Sauge des pres
hornjoserbsce: Łučna želbija
magyar: Mezei zsálya, foszló virág, lóbárzsing, réti-zsálya, vad-zsálya, skarlát-zsálya
italiano: salvia comune, salvia dei prati
lietuvių: Pievinis šalavijas
Nederlands: Veldsalie
ирон: Уыгæрдæны лæсыф
polski: Szałwia łąkowa
română: Salvie de câmp, Salvia virgata, Salvie de camp
русский: Шалфей луговой
slovenčina: šalvia lúčna
svenska: Ängssalvia
walon: Saedje des tchamps

Salvia pratensis, the meadow clary[1] or meadow sage, is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. The Latin specific epithet pratensis means "of meadows", referring to its preferred habitat. It also grows in scrub edges and woodland borders.

Description

This herbaceous perennial forms a basal clump 1 to 1.5 m (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, with rich green rugose leaves that are slightly ruffled and toothed on the edges. The stems have four edges and are clad in glandular and soft hairs. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, with those on the lower part of the stem up to 15 cm (6 in) long, decreasing in size higher up the stem. The flower stalks are typically branched, with four to six flowers in each verticil forming a lax spike. The flowers may grow up to 2.5 cm (1 in) and open starting from the base of the inflorescence, which grows up to 30.5 cm (12 in) long. The small calyx is dark brown. The corolla is irregular, 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long, fused with two lips and long-tubed. The upper lip arches in a crescent shape and the lower lip is three-lobed with the central lobe larger than the lateral lobes. In the wild the corolla is usually bluish-violet. In cultivation, the flowers have a wide variety of colors, from rich violet and violet-blue to bluish white, and from pink to pure white. There are two long stamens protected by the upper corolla lip and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp.[2][3]
Distribution and habitat

Salvia pratensis is native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa where it grows in meadows, fields, banks and rough places.[3] It has become naturalized in many parts of the United States, and is considered a noxious weed in the state of Washington.[4][5] At one time it was banned from California because it was thought to have naturalized in three locations.
Cultivation

Salvia pratensis is hardy in the severest European climates, down to −20 °C (−4 °F). It is widely grown in horticulture, especially Salvia pratensis subsp. haematodes,[6] which is prized by flower arrangers as a cut flower. Some botanists consider it a separate species, S. haematodes.[2]

Named cultivars include:-

'Atroviolacea', dark blue to violet
'Baumgartenii', blue to violet
'Lupinoides', to 60 cm (24 in), white-flecked blue to purple
'Mitsommer' ("Midsummer"), sky blue
'Rosea', rose-pink to purple
'Rubicunda', rose-red
'Tenorii', to about 60 cm (24 in) tall, blue flowers
'Variegata', blue and sometimes white-tipped flowers.[6]

AGM cultivars

The cultivar group Haematodes,[7] and the cultivar 'Indigo' with violet blue flowers, have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8][9]
Uses

The name of the plant 'clary' is derived from 'clear-eye' and the plant seeds were formerly used as a paste to remove particles from the eyes and to reduce inflammation or redness. It was also used as a gargle for sore throats, and to clean teeth. It has also been used as a flavouring for beers and wines.[10]
References

BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
Clebsch, Betsy; Barner, Carol D. (2003). The New Book of Salvias. Timber Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-88192-560-9.
"Meadow sage: Salvia pratensis". NatureGate. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
"PLANTS Profile for Salvia pretenses". Plants Profile. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
"Meadow Clary". State of Washington. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
Mark Griffiths, Editor. Index of Garden Plants, 2nd American Edition. (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 1995. ISBN 0-88192-246-3.)
"Salvia pratensis Haematodes Group". RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Salvia pratensis 'Indigo'". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 95. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
"Meadow clary". Plantlife.org.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2016.

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