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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Rosoideae
Tribus: Agrimonieae
Subtribus: Sanguisorbinae
Genus: Sanguisorba
Species

S. albanica – S. albiflora – S. alpina – S. ancistroides – S. annua – S. applanata – S. armena – S. azovtsevii – S. canadensis – S. cretica – S. diandra – S. dodecandra – S. durui – S. filiformis – S. hakusanensis – S. hybrida – S. indica – S. japonensis – S. lateriflora – S. longifolia – S. magnifica – S. mauritanica – S. megacarpa – S. menendezii – S. menziesii – S. minor – S. obtusa – S. officinalis – S. riparia – S. rupicola – S. sirnakia – S. stipulata – S. tenuifolia – S. verrucosa – S. vestita
Nothospecies

S. × kishinamii – S. × poroshirensis – S. × pseudo-officinalis – S. × takahashihideoi
Name

Sanguisorba L., Sp. Pl. 1: 116 (1753).

Type species: S. officinalis L.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Dendriopoterium Svent., Bol. Inst. Nac. Invest. Agron. 18: 255 (1948).
Gervasia Raf., Specchio Sci. 1: 155 (1814).
Pimpinella Ség., Pl. Veron. 3: 61 (1754).
Poteridium Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 5: 43 (1846).
Poterium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 994 (1753).

Note: Poterium and Poteridium could be segregated Hassler. (2020) cf. Govaerts et al. (2020), however, this is an option that is not always followed in spite of Sanguisorba s.l. being paraphyletic (Potter et al., 2007 and Wang et al., 2020). WS should consider dismantling the above circumscription in favour of the more contemporary approach.
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 116. Reference page.

Additional references

Potter, D., Eriksson, T., Evans, R.C., Oh, S., Smedmark, J.E.E., Morgan, D.R., Kerr, M., Robertson, K.R., Arsenault, M., Dickinson, T.A. & Campbell, C.S. 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266(1-2): 5–43. DOI: 10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9 PDF Reference page.
Wang, J.R., Wang, X., Su, N., Li, Q.J., Zhang, X.H., Ma, Y.P., Zhao, L., Ginefra Toni, J.F. & De Craene, L.R. 2020. Floral morphology and morphogenesis in Sanguisorba (Rosaceae): flower diversification despite petal reduction and spatial constraints. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 193(1): 47-63. DOI: 10.1093/botlinnean/boaa009 ResearchGate Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2020. Sanguisorba. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 25. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Sanguisorba in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 25. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Sanguisorba. Published online. Accessed: 25 May 2020.

Vernacular names
العربية: مرقئة
azərbaycanca: Sincanotu
беларуская: Крывасмок
български: Динка
čeština: krvavec
dansk: Kvæsurt
Deutsch: Wiesenknopf
English: Burnet
eesti: Punanupp
euskara: Sanguisorba
فارسی: توت روباهی
suomi: Luppiot
français: Pimprenelle
עברית: בן-סירה
hornjoserbsce: Wohenčk
magyar: Vérfű
հայերեն: Արյունախմիկ
日本語: ワレモコウ属
ქართული: თავსისხლა
қазақша: Сиырсілекей
한국어: 오이풀속
lietuvių: Kraujalakė
Nederlands: Pimpernel
polski: Krwiściąg
português: Sanguisorba
русский: Кровохлёбка
slovenčina: krvavec
svenska: Pimpinellsläktet
Türkçe: Çayırdüğmesi
українська: Родовик
中文: 地榆属

Sanguisorba is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The common name is burnet.

Description

The plants are herbaceous perennials or small shrubs. The stems grow to 50–200 cm tall and have a cluster of basal leaves, with further leaves arranged alternately up the stem. The leaves are pinnate, 5–30 cm long, with 7-25 leaflets, the leaflets with a serrated margin. Young leaves grow from the crown in the center of the plant. The flowers are small, produced in dense clusters 5–20 mm long; each flower has four very small petals, white to red in colour.
Species

The following species are accepted:[1]

Sanguisorba albanica András. & Jáv.
Sanguisorba albiflora (Makino) Makino
Sanguisorba alpina Bunge
Sanguisorba ancistroides (Desf.) Ces.
Sanguisorba annua (Nutt. ex Hook.) Torr. & A.Gray – annual burnet, prairie burnet, western burnet
Sanguisorba applanata T.T.Yu & C.L.Li
Sanguisorba armena Boiss.
Sanguisorba azovtsevii Krasnob. & Pshenich.
Sanguisorba canadensis L. – Canadian burnet, white burnet
Sanguisorba cretica Hayek
Sanguisorba diandra (Hook.f.) Nordborg
Sanguisorba dodecandra Moretti – Italian burnet
Sanguisorba durui Yild.
Sanguisorba filiformis (Hook.f.) Hand.-Mazz.
Sanguisorba hakusanensis Makino
Sanguisorba hybrida (L.) Font Quer
Sanguisorba indica (Gardner) Tirveng.
Sanguisorba japonensis (Makino) Kudô
Sanguisorba × kishinamii Honda
Sanguisorba lateriflora (Coss.) A.Braun & C.D.Bouché
Sanguisorba longifolia Bertol.
Sanguisorba magnifica I.Schischk. & Kom.
Sanguisorba mauritanica Desf.
Sanguisorba megacarpa (Lowe) Muñoz Garm. & C.Navarro
Sanguisorba menendezii (Svent.) Nordborg – Canary Islands burnet
Sanguisorba minor Scop. – salad burnet, garden burnet, little burnet
Sanguisorba obtusa Maxim. – Japanese burnet
Sanguisorba occidentalis Nutt.
Sanguisorba officinalis L. – great burnet, burnet bloodwort
Sanguisorba × poroshirensis S.Watan.
Sanguisorba × pseudo-officinalis Naruh.
Sanguisorba riparia Juz.
Sanguisorba rupicola (Boiss. & Reut.) A.Braun & C.D.Bouché
Sanguisorba sirnakia Yild.
Sanguisorba stipulata Raf.
Sanguisorba × takahashihideoi Naruh.
Sanguisorba tenuifolia Fisch. ex Link

Ecology

Sanguisorba minor is a food plant for the larvae of the grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae) and the mouse moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis).
Cultivation and uses

Burnets are cultivated as garden plants. Many cultivars have been bred, especially from S. officinalis. S. canadensis is grown for its white flowers on stems that well exceed a meter tall. The plants hybridize easily, producing new mixes.[2] S. obtusa is valued for its foliage of pink-edged, gray-green leaves.[3]

Sanguisorba officinalis is used medicinally in Asia to treat gastrointestinal conditions and bleeding.[4]

Sanguisorba minor, salad burnet, has similarly been used medicinally in Europe to control bleeding. The leaves have a cucumber flavour and can be eaten in salads, or used fresh or dried and made into a tea.[5]
Etymology

Sanguisorba means ‘blood stauncher’. ‘Sanguis’ is a cognate with ‘sanguine’, meaning 'blood'. ‘Sorbeo’ means 'to staunch’. The plant is known to have styptic properties.[6]
References

"Sanguisorba L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
Sutton, J. Sanguisorba in Cultivation. Archived 2013-08-28 at the Wayback Machine The Plantsman. Royal Horticultural Society. June, 2007. 78-83.
Bourne, V. How to grow: Sanguisorba. The Daily Telegraph September 21, 2002.
Choi J, Kim MY, Cha BC, Yoo ES, Yoon K, Lee J, Rho HS, Kim SY, Cho JY (January 2012). "ZYM-201 sodium succinate ameliorates streptozotocin-induced hyperlipidemic conditions". Planta Med. 78 (1): 12–7. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1280219. PMID 21928167.
Bown, Deni (2002). The Royal Horticultural Society New Encyclopaedia of Herbs & Their Uses. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 0-7513-3386-7.
Gledhill, David (2008). The Names of Plants. MCambridge University Press. p. 339. ISBN 9780521866453.

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