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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Menthinae
Genus: Satureja
Species

S. adamovicii – S. aintabensis – S. amani – S. atropatana – S. avromanica – S. bachtiarica – S. boissieri – S. bzybica – S. cilicica – S. coerulea – S. cuneifolia – S. edmondii – S. fukarekii – S. hellenica – S. hortensis – S. horvatii – S. icarica – S. innota – S. intermedia – S. intricata – S. isophylla – S. kermanica – S. kermanshahensis – S. khuzistanica – S. kitaibelii – S. laxiflora – S. macrantha – S. metastasiantha – S. montana – S. mutica – S. pallaryi – S. parnassica – S. pilosa – S. rechingeri – S. rumelica – S. sahendica – S. salzmannii – S. spicigera – S. spinosa – S. subspicata – S. taurica – S. thymbra – S. visianii – S. wiedemanniana
Nothospecies

S. × caroli-paui – S. × delpozoi – S. × exspectata – S. × orjenii

Name

Satureja L., Sp. Pl. 2: 568 (1753).

Type species: Satureja hortensis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 568 (1753).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Argantoniella G.López & R.Morales, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 61: 25 (2004).
Type species: Argantoniella salzmannii (Kuntze) G.López & R.Morales
Satureja sect. Salzmannia G.López, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 38(2): 384 (1982).
Euhesperida Brullo & Furnari, Webbia 34: 433 (1979).
Saturiastrum Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 133 (1869).
Thymbra Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754), nom. illeg. hom., non Thymbra L.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Czechoslovakia (introduced).
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse (introduced), France, Portugal (introduced), Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Regional: Eastern Europe
Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, Ukraine (introduced).
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Libya, Morocco.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Siberia
Altay.
Regional: Russian Far East
Primorye (introduced).
Regional: Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan.
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Regional: Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Turkey.
Regional: Arabian Peninsula
Gulf States (introduced).
Regional: China
Xinjiang.
Continental: Asia-Tropical
Regional: Indian Subcontinent
West Himalaya.
Continental: Northern America (introduced)
Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Wisconsin.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
New York, Vermont.
Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
Texas.
Continental: Southern America
Regional: Caribbean
Cuba, Dominican Republic (introduced).

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 568. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Satureja in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 18. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Satureja in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 18. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2022. Satureja. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 18 April 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Satureja. Published online. Accessed: April 18 2022.
Hassler, M. 2022. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Satureja. Accessed: 18 April 2022.
Hassler, M. 2022. Satureja. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 18. Reference page.
Euro+Med 2006 onwards: Satureja in Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 18.

Vernacular names
български: Чубрица
Deutsch: Bohnenkräuter
English: Savory
español: Ajedreas
eesti: Piparrohi
suomi: Kyntelit, käenmintut
français: Sarriette
italiano: Santoreggia
lietuvių: Dašis
македонски: Чубрика
Nederlands: steentijm, bonenkruid
polski: Cząber
русский: Чабер

Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. It is native to North Africa, southern and southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia. A few New World species were formerly included in Satureja, but they have all been moved to other genera. Several species are cultivated as culinary herbs called savory, and they have become established in the wild in a few places.[1][2]

Description

Satureja species may be annual or perennial. They are low-growing herbs and subshrubs, reaching heights of 15–50 cm (5.9–19.7 in).

The leaves are 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) long, with flowers forming in whorls on the stem, white to pale pink-violet.
Ecology and cultivation

Satureja species are food plants for the larva of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Caterpillars of the moth Coleophora bifrondella feed exclusively on winter savory (S. montana).

Savory may be grown purely for ornamental purposes; members of the genus need sun and well-drained soil.
Uses
Dried summer savory leaves

Both summer savory (Satureja hortensis) and winter savory (Satureja montana) are used to flavor food. The former is preferred by cooks but as an annual is only available in summer; winter savory is an evergreen perennial.

Savory plays an important part in Armenian, Georgian, Bulgarian and Italian cuisine, particularly when cooking beans. It is also used to season the traditional Acadian stew known as fricot. Savory is also a key ingredient in sarmale, a stuffed cabbage dish in traditional Romanian cuisine. The modern spice mixture Herbes de Provence has savory as one of the principal ingredients.

In Azerbaijan, savory is often incorporated as a flavoring in black tea.
Species[1]
Satureja subspicata

Satureja adamovicii Šilic – Balkans
Satureja aintabensis P.H.Davis – Turkey
Satureja amani P.H.Davis – Turkey
Satureja atropatana Bunge – Iran
Satureja avromanica Maroofi – Iran
Satureja bachtiarica Bunge – Iran
Satureja boissieri Hausskn. ex Boiss. – Turkey, Iran
Satureja bzybica Woronow – Caucasus
Satureja × caroli-paui G.López – Spain (S. innota × S. montana)
Satureja cilicica P.H.Davis – Turkey
Satureja coerulea Janka – Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey
Satureja cuneifolia Ten – Spain, Italy, Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, Iraq
Satureja × delpozoi Sánchez-Gómez, J.F.Jiménez & R.Morales – Spain (S. cuneifolia × S. intricata var. gracilis)
Satureja edmondii Briq. – Iran
A recent study found the essential oils of Satureja edmondii have antimicrobial properties and can protect food from S. aureus.[3] The test was conducted on commercial soup products.[3]
Satureja × exspectata G.López – Spain (S. intricata var. gracilis × S. montana)
Satureja fukarekii Šilic – Yugoslavia
Satureja hellenica Halácsy – Greece
Satureja hortensis L. – summer savory – Italy, Bulgaria, Albania, Yugoslavia, Crimea, Caucasus, Altai Republic, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, western Himalayas; naturalized in western Mediterranean, Persian Gulf sheikdoms, Cuba, Dominican Republic, scattered locations in United States
The heterogeneous mixture of the Satureja hortensis L. essential oil in water serves as a natural herbicide. The addition of this mixture inhibits the root elongation of weeds which reduces the weed's root-to-shoot ratio. This further reduces the weed's cell division and inhibits its germination, growth, and physiological processes.[4]
Satureja horvatii Šilic – Greece, Yugoslavia
Satureja icarica P.H.Davis – Greek Islands
Satureja innota (Pau) Font Quer – Spain
Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey. – Iran, Caucasus
Satureja intricata Lange – Spain
Satureja isophylla Rech.f. – Iran
Satureja kallarica Jamzad – Iran
Satureja kermanshahensis Jamzad – Iran
Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad – Iran
Essential oils of Satureja khuzistanica have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties which can be useful in medical treatments.[5] A recent study found that higher concentrations of essential oils of Satureja khuzistanica helped reduce adverse effects of traumatic brain injuries in rats.[5]
Satureja kitaibelii Wierzb. ex Heuff. – Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia
Satureja laxiflora K.Koch – Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Caucasus
Satureja linearifolia (Brullo & Furnari) Greuter – Cyrenaica region of Libya
Satureja macrantha C.A.Mey. – Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Caucasus
Satureja metastasiantha Rech.f. – Iraq
Satureja montana L. – winter savory – southern Europe, Turkey, Syria
Satureja mutica Fisch. & C.A.Mey. – Caucasus, Iran, Turkmenistan
Satureja nabateorum Danin & Hedge – Jordan
Satureja × orjenii Šilic – Yugoslavia (S. horvatii × S. montana)
Satureja pallaryi J.Thiébaut – Syria
Satureja parnassica Heldr. & Sart. ex Boiss. – Greece, Turkey
Satureja pilosa Velen. – Italy, Greece, Bulgaria
Satureja rumelica'' Velen. – Bulgaria
Satureja sahendica Bornm. – Iran
Satureja salzmannii (Kuntze) P.W.Ball – Morocco, Spain
Satureja spicigera (K.Koch) Boiss. – Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
Satureja spinosa L. – Turkey, Greek Islands including Crete
Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. – Austria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Italy
Satureja taurica Velen. – Crimea
Satureja thymbra L. – Libya, southeastern Europe from Sardinia to Turkey; Cyprus, Lebanon, Palestine
Satureja thymbrifolia Hedge & Feinbrun – Israel, Saudi Arabia
Satureja visianii Šilic. – Yugoslavia
Satureja wiedemanniana (Avé-Lall.) Velen. – Turkey

Formerly in Satureja

Browne's savory, Clinopodium brownei (as Satureja brownei)
San Miguel Savory, Clinopodium chandleri (as Satureja chandleri)
Large-flowered calamint, Calamintha grandiflora (as Satureja grandiflora)
Stone mint, Cunila mariana (as Satureja origanoides)
Satureja acinos (L.) Scheele = Clinopodium acinos (L.) Kuntze
Satureja alpina (L.) Scheele = Clinopodium alpinum (L.) Kuntze
Satureja biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Benth = Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Benth
Satureja gillesii (Graham) Briq. = Clinopodium chilense (Benth.) Govaerts
Satureja mexicana (Benth.) Briq. = Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts
Satureja multiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Briq. – Chilean shrub mint = Clinopodium multiflorum (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze
Satureja palmeri (A.Gray) Briq. (believed extinct; rediscovered 2001) = Clinopodium palmeri (A.Gray) Kuntze
Satureja paradoxa (Vatke) Engl. ex Seybold = Clinopodium paradoxum (Vatke) Ryding
Satureja robusta (Hook.f) Brenan = Clinopodium robustum (Hook.f) Ryding
Satureja viminea L. – serpentine savory = Clinopodium vimineum (L.) Kuntze
Satureja vulgaris (L.) Fritschl = Clinopodium vulgare L.
Satureja vernayana Brenan = Clinopodium vernayanum (Brenan) Ryding
Satureja douglasii (Benth.) Briq. – yerba buena (syn. S. chamissonis) = Micromeria douglasii Benth

Etymology

The etymology of the Latin word "satureia" is unclear. Speculation that it is related to saturare,[6] to satyr,[6] or to za'atar[7] is not well supported. The ancient Hebrew name is Tzatrah צתרה.
Notes

"Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families".
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Satureja includes photos plus distribution maps for Europe + North America
Moradi, Shirin; Sadeghi, Ehsan (2017). "Study of the antimicrobial effects of essential oil of Satureja edmondi and nisin on Staphylococcus aureus in commercial soup". Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 41 (4): e13337. doi:10.1111/jfpp.13337.
Hazrati, Hossein; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Moein, Mahmoodreza (August 2017). "Natural herbicide activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil nanoemulsion on the seed germination and morphophysiological features of two important weed species". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 142: 423–430. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.04.041. ISSN 1090-2414. PMID 28456128.
Abbasloo, Elham; Denhgan, Mohammad; Najafipour, Hamid; Vahidi, Reza; Dabiri, Shahriar; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Asadikaram, Gholamreza (September 21, 2016). "The anti-inflammatory properties of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil attenuate the effects of traumatic brain injuries in rats". Scientific Reports. 6 (31866): 31866. Bibcode:2016NatSR...631866A. doi:10.1038/srep31866. PMC 4989136. PMID 27535591.
F. E. J. Valpy, An Etymological Dictionary of the Latin Language, 1828, p. 542.
DeBaggio, Thomas; Tucker, Arthur O. (2009). The encyclopedia of herbs : a comprehensive reference to herbs of flavor and fragrance (2nd ed.). Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881929942.

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