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Satureja montana

Satureja montana (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Menthinae
Genus: Satureja
Species: Satureja montana
Subspecies: S. m. subsp. macedonica – S. m. subsp. montana – S. m. subsp. pisidia – S. m. subsp. variegata
Name

Satureja montana L., Sp. Pl.: 568 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Thymus montanus (L.) Dum.Cours., Bot. Cult., ed. 2, 3: 32 (1811), nom. illeg.
Micromeria montana (L.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 311 (1831).
Clinopodium montanum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 515 (1891).
Saturiastrum montanum (L.) Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 133 (1969).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Middle Europe
Austria.
Southwestern Europe
France, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Montenegro).
Asia-Temperate
Western Asia
Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon, Syria), Turkey.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 568. Reference page.

Additional references

Castroviejo, S.†, Morales, R., Quintanar, A., Cabezas, F., Pujadas, A. & Cirujano, S. (eds.) 2010. Flora Ibérica. Plantas Vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol. XII. Verbenaceae − Labiatae − Callitrichaceae. liv + 650 pp., Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid. ISBN 978-84-00-09041-8. Biblioteca Digital. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Satureja montana in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 24. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Satureja montana in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 24. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2022. Satureja montana. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 24 April 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Satureja montana. Published online. Accessed: April 24 2022.
Hassler, M. 2022. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Satureja montana. Accessed: 24 April 2022.
Hassler, M. 2022. Satureja montana. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 24. Reference page.
Euro+Med 2006 onwards: Satureja montana in Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 24.

Vernacular names
български: Чубрица
dansk: Vinter-Sar
Deutsch: Berg-Bohnenkraut
English: winter savory, perennial savory
Esperanto: Monta satureo
español: Ajedrea, Hisopillo
suomi: Talvikynteli
français: Sarriette vivace
Nederlands: Winter bonenkruid, doorlevend bonenkruid
polski: cząber górski
русский: Чабер горный
српски / srpski: Ртањски чај / Rtanjski čaj, Планински чај / Planinski čaj, Вресак / Vresak, Народни чај / Narodni čaj
svenska: Vinterkyndel

Satureja montana (winter savory or mountain savory), is a perennial, semi-evergreen herb in the family Lamiaceae, native to warm temperate regions of southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and Africa. It has dark green leaves and summer flowers ranging from pale lavender, or pink to white. The closely related plant, summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) is an annual plant.

Description

It grows to between 10 and 40 cm (4 and 16 in) tall.[2][3] The leathery,[3] dark green[4] leaves are opposite, oval-lanceolate, (or needle-like, [5] 1–2 cm long and 5 mm broad. The flowers appear in summer,[5] between July and October,[6] and range from pale lavender or pink to white.[3][7] The flowers are smaller than summer savoury flowers.[8] It contains carvacrol,[7] a monoterpenoid phenol.[9]

The herb was first published by Carl Linnaeus in his book Species Plantarum on page 568 in 1753.[1][10] The Latin specific epithet montana refers to mountains or coming from mountains.[11] Also commonly known as 'mountain savory'.[3]
Distribution and habitat

Satureja montana is native to temperate areas between Europe,[4] the Mediterranean,[2] and Africa.[6] It has been naturalised in Great Britain.[6] It can be found growing in old walls, on dry banks and rocks on hillsides,[6] or rocky mountain slopes.[3] Usually on calcareous,[6] or alkaline soils.[4]
Cultivation and uses

There is evidence of its use about 2000 years ago by the ancient Romans and Greeks.[3]

Easy to grow, it makes an attractive border plant for any culinary herb garden. It requires six hours of sun a day in soil that drains well.[12] In temperate climates it goes dormant in winter, putting out leaves on the bare stems again in the spring – do not cut the plant back, all those stems which appear dead will leaf out again. It is hardy and has a low bunching habit. It can be used within a herb garden as an edging plant.[3]

It is hardy to USDA Zone 4.[5]

It can be propagated from softwood cuttings.[4][13]

It is used as a companion plant for beans, keeping bean weevils away, and also plant with roses, reducing mildew and aphids.[6][12][14]

S. montana 'Nana' is a known dwarf cultivar.[15] S. montana 'Prostrate White' is a small white flowered form.[16]
Culinary uses

In cooking, winter savory has a reputation for going very well with both beans and meats,[17] very often lighter meats such as chicken or turkey, and can be used in stuffing. It can also be used in soups and sauces. It has a strong flavour (more than summer savory),[3][18] while uncooked but loses much of its flavour under prolonged cooking. It can be added to breadcrumbs, as a coating to various meats including trout.[8]
Medicinal uses
Satureja montana1.jpg
closeup image of the flower

Winter savory has been purported to have antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, and digestive benefits.[6][17] It has also been used as an expectorant and in the treatment of bee stings,[13][19][20] or insect bites, by the use of a poultice of the leaves.[17] The plant has a stronger action than the closely related summer savory.[17]

Taken internally, it is said to be a remedy for colic and a cure for flatulence, whilst it is also used to treat gastro-enteritis, cystitis, nausea, diarrhoea, bronchial congestion, sore throat and menstrual disorders.[17] It should not be prescribed for pregnant women.

Therapeutic-grade oil has been determined to inhibit growth of Candida albicans.[21]

The plant is harvested in the summer when in flower and can be used fresh or dried. The essential oil forms an ingredient in lotions for the scalp in cases of incipient baldness.[12] An ointment made from the plant is used externally to relieve arthritic joints.[17]

In traditional herbal medicine, summer savory was believed to be an aphrodisiac, while winter savory was believed to inhibit sexual desire (an anaphrodisiac).[7] French herbalist Maurice Messegue claimed that savory was 'the herb of happiness'.[17]
References

"Satureja montana L. is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
Gutzerová, Naděžda. "SATUREJA MONTANA L. – saturejka horská". botany.cz. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
Linford, Jenny (2010). A concise guide to herbs. Bath: Parragon. p. 210. ISBN 9781405487993.
"Satureja montana winter savory". rhs.org.u. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
Bob Beckstrom, Karan Davis Cutler, Kathleen Fisher, Phillip Giroux, Judy Glattstein, Michael MacCaskey, Bill Marken, Charlie Nardozzi, Sally Roth, Marcia Tatroe, Lance Walheim and Ann Whitman Gardening All-in-One For Dummies, p. 674, at Google Books
"Satureja montana - L." pfaf.org. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
"Savory Satureja hortensis / Satureja montana". herbs2000.com. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
K. V. Peter (Editor) Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 2, p. 95, at Google Books
Vladić, Jelena; Zeković, Zoran; Jokić, Stela; Svilović, Sandra; Kovačević, Strahinja; Vidović, Senka (November 2016). "Winter savory: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and mathematical modeling of extraction process". The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 117: 89–97. doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2016.05.027.
"Lamiaceae Satureja montana L." ipni.org. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
Archibald William Smith A Gardener's Handbook of Plant Names: Their Meanings and Origins, p. 239, at Google Books
Sandra-Jane Goddard What Mary Knew, p. 241, at Google Books
Jane Eastoe Herbs: Inspiration and Practical Advice for Gardeners, p. 85, at Google Books
winter savory
"Creeping Winter Savory 'Nana'". davesgarden.com. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
"Winter savory". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
Terry Breverton Breverton's Complete Herbal: A Book of Remarkable Plants and Their Uses, p. 580, at Google Books
"Savory recipes". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
Joan Parry Dutton Plants of Colonial Williamsburg: How to Identify 200 of Colonial America's ..., p. 153, at Google Books
J. Ingle and Nicholas Culpeper Pocket companion to Culpeper's herbal, or English physician, p. 9, at Google Books
Oberg K, Rolling L, Oberg C. in The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 2005;82:60-72

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