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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Saxifragales

Familia: Saxifragaceae
Genus: Saxifraga
Subgenera: S. subg. Hirculus – S. subg. Saxifraga
Species: S. acerifolia – S. adscendens – S. afghanica – S. aizoides – S. alberti – S. aleutica – S. alpigena – S. anadyrensis – S. andersonii – S. androsacea – S. angustata – S. anisophylla – S. aphylla – S. aquatica – S. arachnoidea – S. aretioides – S. aristulata – S. artvinensis – S. aspera – S. assamensis – S. atuntsiensis – S. aurantiaca – S. auriculata – S. babiana – S. baimashanensis – S. balfourii – S. banmaensis – S. benzilanensis – S. bergenioides – S. berica – S. bicuspidata – S. biflora – S. bijiangensis – S. biternata – S. blavii – S. boreo-olympica – S. bourgaeana – S. boussingaultii – S. brachyphylla – S. brachypoda – S. brachypodoidea – S. bracteata – S. brevicaulis – S. bronchialis – S. brunneopunctata – S. brunonis – S. bryoides – S. bulbifera – S. bulleyana – S. burmensis – S. burseriana – S. cacuminum – S. caesia – S. callosa – S. calopetala – S. camposii – S. canaliculata – S. candelabrum – S. caprariae – S. cardiophylla – S. carinata – S. carnosula – S. carpatica – S. carpetana – S. caspica – S. caucasica – S. caveana – S. cebennensis – S. cernua – S. cespitosa – S. chadwellii – S. champutungensis – S. cherlerioides – S. chionophila – S. chrysantha – S. chrysanthoides – S. chumbiensis – S. ciliatopetala – S. cinerascens – S. cinerea – S. cintrana – S. clivorum – S. coarctata – S. cochlearis – S. columnaris – S. congestiflora – S. conifera – S. consanguinea – S. contrarea – S. cordigera – S. corsica – S. cortusifolia – S. cotyledon – S. crustata – S. culcitosa – S. cuneata – S. cuneifolia – S. cymbalaria – S. dahaiensis – S. damingshanensis – S. daochengensis – S. daqiaoensis – S. debilis – S. decora – S. decussata – S. demnatensis – S. densifoliata – S. depressa – S. deqenensis – S. dianxibeiensis – S. diapensia – S. diapensioides – S. dichotoma – S. dielsiana – S. diffusicallosa – S. dingqingensis – S. dinnikii – S. diversifolia – S. dongchuanensis – S. dongwanensis – S. doyalana – S. drabiformis – S. draboides – S. dshagalensis – S. eglandulosa – S. egregia – S. egregioides – S. elatinoides – S. elliotii – S. elliptica – S. embergeri – S. engleriana – S. epiphylla – S. erectisepala – S. erinacea – S. erioblasta – S. eschholzii – S. exarata – S. excellens – S. facchinii – S. federici-augusti – S. felineri – S. ferdinandi-coburgi – S. filicaulis – S. filifolia – S. finitima – S. flaccida – S. flagellaris – S. flavida – S. flexilis – S. florulenta – S. forrestii – S. fortunei – S. fragilis – S. fragosoi – S. ganeshii – S. gedangensis – S. gemmigera – S. gemmipara – S. gemmulosa – S. genesiana – S. georgei – S. geranioides – S. giraldiana – S. glabella – S. glabricaulis – S. glacialis – S. glaucophylla – S. globulifera – S. gonggashanensis – S. gongshanensis – S. granulata – S. granulifera – S. gyalana – S. habaensis – S. haenseleri – S. hakkariensis – S. haplophylloides – S. harae – S. hariotii – S. harry-smithii – S. hederacea – S. hederifolia – S. heleonastes – S. hemisphaerica – S. hengduanensis – S. heteroclada – S. heterocladoides – S. heterotricha – S. hirculoides – S. hirculus – S. hirsuta – S. hispidula – S. hohenwartii – S. hookeri – S. hostii – S. hyperborea – S. hypericoides – S. hypnoides – S. hypostoma – S. imparilis – S. implicans – S. inconspicua – S. insolens – S. intricata – S. iranica – S. irrigua – S. isophylla – S. italica – S. jacquemontiana – S. jainzhuglaensis – S. jaljalensis – S. jamalensis – S. jarmilae – S. jingdongensis – S. josephi – S. juniperifolia – S. jurtzevii – S. karadzicensis – S. kashmeriana – S. kegangii – S. khiakhensis – S. kinchingingae – S. kingiana – S. koelzii – S. kongboensis – S. korshinskyi – S. kotschyi – S. kumaunensis – S. kwangsiensis – S. lactea – S. latepetiolata – S. latiflora – S. lepida – S. likiangensis – S. lilacina – S. linearifoiia – S. litangensis – S. lixianensis – S. llonakhensis – S. longifolia – S. loripes – S. losae – S. lowndesii – S. ludingensis – S. ludlowii – S. luizetiana – S. luoxiaoensis – S. lushuiensis – S. luteoviridis – S. lychnitis – S. macrocalyx – S. macrostigmatoides – S. maderensis – S. magellanica – S. maireana – S. mallae – S. marginata – S. maweana – S. maxionggouensis – S. mazanderanica – S. media – S. medogensis – S. meeboldii – S. megacordia – S. mengtzeana – S. mertensiana – S. micans – S. microcephala – S. microgyna – S. microphylla – S. microviridis – S. minutifoliosa – S. minutissima – S. mira – S. miralana – S. monantha – S. moncayensis – S. montanella – S. montis-christi – S. moorcroftiana – S. moschata – S. mucronulata – S. mucronulatoides – S. muscoides – S. mutata – S. nakaoi – S. nakaoides – S. nambulana – S. namdoensis – S. nana – S. nanella – S. nanelloides – S. nangqenica – S. nangxianensis – S. nathorstii – S. nayarii – S. neopropagulifera – S. nevadensis – S. nigroglandulifera – S. nigroglandulosa – S. nipponica – S. nishidae – S. numidica – S. odontophylla – S. omolojensis – S. omphalodifolia – S. oppositifolia – S. oreophila – S. osloensis – S. ovczinnikovii – S. paiquensis – S. palpebrata – S. paniculata – S. paradoxa – S. pardanthina – S. parkaensis – S. parnassifolia – S. parnassiodes – S. parva – S. pedemontana – S. pellucida – S. pentadactylis – S. peplidifolia – S. peraristulata – S. perpusilla – S. petraea – S. pilifera – S. poluniniana – S. porophylla – S. portosanctana – S. praetermissa – S. pratensis – S. prattii – S. prenja – S. presolanensis – S. przewalskii – S. pseudohirculus – S. pseudolaevis – S. pseudoparvula – S. pubescens – S. pulchra – S. pulvinaria – S. punctulata – S. punctulatoides – S. quadrifaria – S. ramsarica – S. ramulosa – S. retusa – S. reuteriana – S. rhodopetala – S. rigoi – S. rivularis – S. rizhaoshanensis – S. rosacea – S. rotundifolia – S. rotundipetala – S. roylei – S. rufescens – S. rupicola – S. saginoides – S. sancta – S. sanguinea – S. saxatilis – S. saxicola – S. saxorum – S. scardica – S. scleropoda – S. sediformis – S. sedoides – S. seguieri – S. selemdzhensis – S. sempervivum – S. sendaica – S. serotina – S. serpyllifolia – S. serrula – S. sessiliflora – S. shennongii – S. sheqilaensis – S. sherriffii – S. sibirica – S. sibthorpii – S. sichotensis – S. sieversiana – S. signata – S. signatella – S. sikkimensis – S. sinomontana – S. smithiana – S. spathularis – S. sphaeradena – S. spruneri – S. squarrosa – S. staintonii – S. stella-aurea – S. stellariifolia – S. stelleriana – S. stenophylla – S. stolitzkae – S. stolonifera – S. stribrnyi – S. strigosa – S. styriaca – S. subaequifoliata – S. subamplexicaulis – S. sublinearifolia – S. submonantha – S. subomphalodifolia – S. subsessiliflora – S. subspathulata – S. substrigosa – S. subternata – S. subtsangchanensis – S. subverticillata – S. svalbardensis – S. tangutica – S. taraktophylla – S. tatsienluensis – S. taygetea – S. taylorii – S. tenella – S. tentaculata – S. terektensis – S. thiantha – S. tibetica – S. tigrina – S. tombeanensis – S. trabutiana – S. trautvetteri – S. triaristulata – S. tricrenata – S. tricuspidata – S. tridactylites – S. trifurcata – S. tsangchanensis – S. umbellulata – S. umbrosa – S. unguiculata – S. unguipetala – S. uninervia – S. vacillans – S. valdensis – S. valleculosa – S. vandellii – S. vayredana – S. versicallosa – S. vespertina – S. virgularis – S. viridipetala – S. viscidula – S. voroschilovii – S. vulcanica – S. vvedenskyi – S. wahlenbergii – S. wallichiana – S. wardii – S. wenchuanensis – S. wendelboi – S. werneri – S. williamsii – S. xiaozhongdianensis – S. yarlungzangboensis – S. yezhiensis – S. yoshimurae – S. yushuensis – S. zayuensis – S. zhidoensis – S. zimmermannii –
Nothospecies: S. x akinfievii – S. x alejandrei – S. x alloysii-villarii – S. x aragonensis – S. x arguellesii – S. x arizagae – S. x baregensis – S. x bertolonii – S. x blatii – S. x blyttii – S. x borderi – S. x cadevallii – S. x camboana – S. x capitata – S. x celtiberica – S. x churchillii – S. x cochleariifolia – S. x columpoda – S. x conradiae – S. x costei – S. x crawfordii – S. x darrieuxii – S. x davidis-webbii – S. x degeniana – S. x desetangsii – S. x dinninaris – S. x farreri – S. x faucicola – S. x fontqueri – S. x forojulensis – S. x forsteri – S. x gaudinii – S. x gentyana – S. x geum – S. x guadarramica – S. x hausmannii – S. x haussknechtii – S. x hetenbeliana – S. x jouffroyi – S. x karacardica – S. x kochii – S. x lainzii – S. x lecomtei – S. x lhommei – S. x lhostei – S. x luizetii – S. x luteopurpurea – S. x martyi – S. x mattfeldii – S. x melzeri – S. x miscellanea – S. x montserratii – S. x muretii – S. x novacastelensis – S. x obscura – S. x padellae – S. x patens – S. x paxii – S. x polita – S. x portae – S. x prietoi – S. x prudhommei – S. x pseudocontinentalis – S. x ramondii – S. x rayei – S. x recoderi – S. x reyeri – S. x richteri – S. x rivas-martinezii – S. x saleixiana – S. x salmonica – S. x schachtii – S. x somedana – S. x sorianoi – S. x souliei – S. x superba – S. x thrinax – S. x tiroliensis – S. x tukuchensis – S. x urbionica – S. x verguinii – S. x vetteri – S. x vetteriana – S. x vierhapperi – S. x wettsteinii – S. x wilczekii – S. x yvesii – S. x zimmeteri
S. sect. Irregulares - S. sect. Ligulatae - S. sect. Mesogyne - S. sect. Odontophyllae - S. sect. Porphyrion - S. sect. Saxifraga - S. sect. Trachyphyllum
Species: S. aizoides - S. albertii - S. ×andrewsii - S. arguta - S. bronchialis - S. caespitosa - S. cernua - S. conifera - S. cortusifolia - S. diversifolia - S. foliolosa - S. fortunei - S. granulata - S. hookeri - S. hyperborea - S. laciniata - S. lingulata - S. lyallii - S. mertensiana - S. nivalis - S. odontoloma - S. oppositifolia - S. paniculata - S. purpurascens - S. rivularis - S. rotundifolia - S. stellaris - S. stolonifera - S. stolonifera - S. tenuis -

Name

Saxifraga Tourn. ex L., Sp. Pl. 1: 398. (1753)

Type species: Saxifraga granulata L., Sp. Pl. 1: 398. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Chondrosea Haw., Saxifrag. Enum. Revis. Pl. Succ. 10. 1821.
Lectotype species: Chondrosea pyramidalis Haw., vide Small (1905)
Ciliaria Haw., Saxifrag. Enum. 1: 41. 1821, nom. illeg. non Stackhouse (1809), nom. rej..
Type species: non design.
Evaiezoa Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 70. 1836 publ. 1837.
Type species: non design.
Leptasea Haw., Saxifrag. Enum. Revis. Pl. Succ. 39. 1821.
Type species: Leptasea aizoides (L.) Haw.
Tridactylites Haw., Saxifrag. Enum. Revis. Pl. Succ. 21. 1821.
Type species: Tridactylites annuus Haw.
Adenogyna Raf.
Antiphylla Haw.
Aphomonix Raf.
Aulaxis Haw.
Boecherarctica Á.Löve
Cymbalariella Nappi
Dactyloides Nieuwl.
Dermasea Haw.
Diptera Borkh.
Ditriclita Raf.
Geryonia Schrank ex Hoppe
Geum Mill.
Heterisia Raf.
Hirculus Haw.
Kingstonia Gray
Ligularia Duval
Lobaria Haw.
Miscopetalum Haw.
Muscaria Haw.
Oreosplenium Zahlbr. ex Endl.
Ponista Raf.
Robertsonia Haw.
Rupifraga L. ex Raf.
Saxifragella Engl.
Sekika Medik.
Steiranisia Raf.
Tristylea Jord. & Fourr.
Tulorima Raf.
Zahlbrucknera Rchb.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 398.
Small, J.K. (1905) N. Amer. Fl. 22: 131.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Saxifraga in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 5. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Saxifraga. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 5. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Saxifraga. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 5 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Saxifraga. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 5.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Daşdələn
български: Каменоломка
čeština: lomikámen
dansk: Stenbræk
Deutsch: Steinbrech
English: Saxifrages, strawberry begonia
eesti: Kivirik
فارسی: خاراشکن
suomi: Rikot
français: Saxifrage
עברית: בקעצור
hornjoserbsce: Rupik
magyar: Kőtörőfű, kőrontófű
հայերեն: Քարբեկ
日本語: ユキノシタ属
ქართული: ფხიჯა
қазақша: Тасжарған
한국어: 범의귀속
kurdî: Berbir
lombard: Saxifraga
lietuvių: Uolaskėlė
Nederlands: Steenbreek
norsk nynorsk: Sildreslekta
norsk: Sildrer
polski: Skalnica
português: Saxífraga
русский: Камнеломка
davvisámegiella: Nárttit
slovenčina: lomikameň
svenska: Bräckor
Türkçe: Taşkıran
українська: Ломикамінь
Tiếng Việt: Saxifraga
Winaray: Saxifraga
中文: 虎耳草属

Saxifraga is the largest genus in the family Saxifragaceae, containing about 440 species of holarctic perennial plants, known as saxifrages[2] or rockfoils.[3] The Latin word saxifraga means literally "stone-breaker", from Latin saxum ("rock" or "stone") + frangere ("to break"). It is usually thought to indicate a medicinal use for treatment of urinary calculi (known as kidney or bladder stones), rather than breaking rocks apart.[2][4]

Description

Most saxifrages are small perennial, biennial (e.g. S. adscendens) or annual (e.g. S. tridactylites) herbaceous plants whose basal or cauline leaves grow close to the ground, often in a rosette. The leaves typically have a more or less incised margin; they may be succulent, needle-like and/or hairy, reducing evaporation.[5][6][7]

The inflorescence or single flower clusters rise above the main plant body on naked stalks. The small actinomorphic hermaphrodite flowers have five petals and sepals and are usually white, but red to yellow in some species. Stamens, usually 10, rarely 8, insert at the junction of the floral tube and ovary wall, with filaments subulate or clavate. As in other primitive eudicots, some of the 5 or 10 stamens may appear petal-like. and it lives in tundral ecosystems.[5][8][6]
Taxonomy

A genus of about 440 species. The former monotypic genus Saxifragella has been submersed within Saxifraga, the largest genus in Saxifragaceae, as Saxifraga bicuspidata.[9][5] Also the genus Saxifragopsis (strawberry saxifrage) was previously included in Saxifraga.[1]
Subdivision

Based on morphological criteria, up to 15 sections were recognised.[10] Subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies reduced this to 13 sections with 9 subsections. The former sections Micranthes and Merkianae are more closely related to the Boykinia and Heuchera clades.[11] Modern floras separate these groups as the genus Micranthes.[12][6]

The thirteen sections (with subsections) are;[13]

Irregulares
Saxifragella
Pseudocymbalaria
Bronchiales
Ciliatae
Cymbalaria
Cotylea
Gymnopera
Mesogyne
Trachyphyllum
Ligulatae
Porphyrion
Squarrosae
Mutatae
Oppositifoliae
Florulentae
Kabschia
Saxifraga
Tridactylites
Androsaceae
Arachnoideae
Saxifraga

List of selected species

Saxifraga adscendens – ascending saxifrage
Saxifraga aizoides – Yellow mountain saxifrage,[14] yellow saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga aizoon – Aizoon rockfoil
Saxifraga algisii
Saxifraga anadyrensis
Saxifraga androsacea
Saxifraga aquatica
Saxifraga arachnoidea
Saxifraga × arendsii – mossy saxifrage, mossy rockfoil
Saxifraga aspera L. – rough saxifrage,[14] stiff-haired saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga bicuspidata
Saxifraga biflora
Saxifraga bronchialis L. – matte saxifrage
Saxifraga bryoides L. – mossy saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga burseriana L. – AGM
Saxifraga caesia – blue green saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga callosa Sm. – limestone saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga canaliculata
Saxifraga carpatica
Saxifraga cernua – drooping saxifrage, nodding saxifrage, bulblet saxifrage
Saxifraga cervicornis
Saxifraga cespitosa – tufted saxifrage
Saxifraga ciliata
Saxifraga cochlearis
Saxifraga columnaris Schmalh.
Saxifraga corsica
Saxifraga consanguinea W.W.Sm.
Saxifraga cotyledon L. – great alpine rockfoil, greater evergreen saxifrage
Saxifraga crustata Vest. – crusted-leaved saxifraga, silver saxifrage, encrusted saxifrage
Saxifraga cuneifolia – shield-leaved saxifrage,[14] lesser London pride
Saxifraga cymbalaria – celandine saxifrage
Saxifraga decipiens
Saxifraga dinnikii Schmalh.
Saxifraga eschscholtzii – cushion saxifrage
Saxifraga exarata – furrowed saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga flagellaris Willd. ex Sternb. – whiplash saxifrage, spider saxifrage, "spider plant"
Saxifraga florulenta
Saxifraga forbesei
Saxifraga fortunei Hook.f.
Saxifraga × geum – Robertsoniana saxifrage (S. hirsuta x S. umbrosa)
Saxifraga globulifera – Gibraltar saxifrage
Saxifraga granulata L. – meadow saxifrage,[14] bulbous saxifrage,[14] fair maids of France[14] (type species)
Saxifraga grisebachii - Engleria saxifrage
Saxifraga groenlandica
Saxifraga hederacea
Saxifraga hirculus L. – yellow marsh saxifrage, marsh saxifrage, "bog saxifrage"
Saxifraga hirsuta – kidney saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga hyperborea – pygmy saxifrage
Saxifraga hypnoides – mossy saxifrage,[14] Dovedale moss
Saxifraga juniperifolia
Saxifraga korshinskii Kom.
Saxifraga lactea Turcz.
Saxifraga longifolia – Pyrenean saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga maderensis – Madeira saxifrage,[14] Madeira breakstone[14]
Saxifraga mertensiana – Mertens' saxifrage
Saxifraga montana
Saxifraga moschata – musky saxifrage, mossy saxifrage
Saxifraga moschata ssp. basaltica
Saxifraga muscoides
Saxifraga mutata
Saxifraga nathorstii (Dusén) Hayek – East Greenland saxifrage
Saxifraga nipponica
Saxifraga oppositifolia – purple saxifrage,[14] purple mountain saxifrage
Saxifraga osloensis Knaben - Oslo saxifrage, a natural hybrid species[15]
Saxifraga paniculata – lifelong saxifrage,[14] white mountain saxifrage
Saxifraga paradoxa Sternb. – Fragile saxifraga
Saxifraga petraea
Saxifraga platysepala (= S. flagellaris auct. non Willd.) – broadsepal saxifrage
Saxifraga porophylla
Saxifraga redofskii – many-flower saxifrage
Saxifraga rivularis – alpine brook saxifrage, brook saxifrage, highland saxifrage
Saxifraga rosacea – Irish saxifrage
Saxifraga rotundifolia L. – round-leaved saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga roylei
Saxifraga rudolphiana
Saxifraga rufopilosa – redhair saxifrage
Saxifraga sancta
Saxifraga serpyllifolia – thymeleaf saxifrage
Saxifraga sibirica – Siberian saxifrage
Saxifraga spathularis – Saint Patrick's cabbage
Saxifraga squarrosa – Dolomites saxifrage
Saxifraga stolonifera – creeping saxifrage, strawberry saxifrage, creeping rockfoil, strawberry begonia, strawberry geranium,[14] Aaron's beard
Saxifraga stolonifera f. aptera (Makino) H.Hara – hoshizaki-yukinoshita (Japanese)
Saxifraga stolonifera 'Cuscutiformis' (Saxifraga cuscutiformis Lodd.) – Dodder-like saxifrage[14]
Saxifraga subverticillata
Saxifraga svalbardensis
Saxifraga taygetea
Saxifraga taylorii – Taylor's saxifrage
Saxifraga tenella
Saxifraga tombeanensis
Saxifraga tricuspidata Rottb. – prickly saxifrage
Saxifraga tridactylites – rue-leaved saxifrage, "nailwort"
Saxifraga trifurcata
Saxifraga × urbium – London pride (S. spathularis × S. umbrosa)
Saxifraga umbrosa – Pyrenean saxifrage
Saxifraga vandelli
Saxifraga wahlenbergii

Formerly placed here

Plants formerly placed in Saxifraga are mainly but not exclusively Saxifragaceae. They include:

Astilboides tabularis, as S. tabularis
Bergenia crassifolia, as S. cordifolia, S. crassifolia
Bergenia pacumbis, as S. ligulata, S. pacumbis
Bergenia purpurascens, as S. delavayi, S. purpurascens
Boykinia jamesii, as S. jamesii
Boykinia occidentalis (Coastal Brookfoam), as S. elata
Boykinia richardsonii (Richardson's Brookfoam), as S. richardsonii
Darmera peltata (Indian Rhubarb), as S. peltata
Leptarrhena pyrolifolia, as S. pyrolifolia
Luetkea pectinata (Partridgefoot), as S. pectinata
Micranthes, including:
Micranthes integrifolia (wholeleaf saxifrage)
Micranthes howellii (Howell's saxifrage),[14] as S. howellii
Micranthes stellaris (Starry saxifrage),[14] as S. stellaris
Mukdenia rossii (Mukdenia), as S. rossii

Other "saxifragous" plants

Several plant genera have names referring to saxifrages, although they might not be close relatives of Saxifraga. They include:

Golden-saxifrages, Chrysosplenium
Burnet-saxifrages, Pimpinella
Pepper-saxifrage, Silaum silaus. The name "silaum" comes from the Latin word sil, which means yellow ochre. This refers to the sulphorous yellow colour of the flowers.[16]

Some plants refer to Saxifraga in their generic names or specific epithets, either because they are also "rock-breaking" or because they resemble members of the saxifrage genus:

Campanula saxifraga
Celmisia saxifraga (Benth.) W.M.Curtis
Cineraria saxifraga DC.
Dryopteris saxifraga
Petrorhagia saxifraga – Tunicflower
Pimpinella saxifraga – Burnet saxifrage
Ptychotis saxifraga
Saxifragella
Saxifragodes
Saxifragopsis Small

Ecology

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Round-leaved saxifrage (S. rotundifolia), whose sticky leaves seem to catch small invertebrates

Saxifrages are typical inhabitants of Arctic–alpine ecosystems, and are hardly ever found outside the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere; most members of this genus are found in subarctic climates. A good number of species grow in glacial habitats, such as S. biflora which can be found some 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) above sea level in the Alps, or the East Greenland saxifrage (S. nathorstii). The genus is also abundant in the Eastern and Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows. Though the archetypal saxifrage is a small plant huddling between rocks high up on a mountain, many species do not occur in such a habitat and are larger (though still rather delicate) plants found on wet meadows.

Various Saxifraga species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some butterflies and moths, such as the Phoebus Apollo (Parnassius phoebus).[17]

Charles Darwin – erroneously believing Saxifraga to be allied to the sundew family (Droseraceae) – suspected the sticky-leaved round-leaved saxifrage (S. rotundifolia), rue-leaved saxifrage (S. tridactylites) and Pyrenean saxifrage (S. umbrosa) to be protocarnivorous plants, and conducted some experiments whose results supported his observations,[18] but the matter has apparently not been studied since his time.
Cultivation
Saxifraga urumoffii at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

Numerous species and cultivars of saxifrage are cultivated as ornamental garden plants, valued particularly as groundcover or as cushion plants in rock gardens and alpine gardens. Many require alkaline or neutral soil to thrive.[7]

S. × urbium (London pride), a hybrid between Pyrenean saxifrage (S. umbrosa) and St. Patrick's cabbage (S. spathularis), is commonly grown as an ornamental plant.[2] Another horticultural hybrid is Robertsoniana saxifrage (S. × geum), derived from kidney saxifrage (S. hirsuta) and Pyrenean saxifrage. Some wild species are also used in gardening. Cambridge University Botanic Garden hosts the United Kingdom's national collection of saxifrages.[2]
Award of Garden Merit

The following species and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-[19]

’Angelina Johnson’ (fortunei)[20]
’Blackberry and Apple Pie’ (fortunei)[21]
S. callosa (limestone saxifrage)[22]
’Conwy Snow’ (fortunei)[23]
’Coolock Kate’[24]
’Cumulus’[25]
S. fortunei[26]
’Gregor Mendel’ (× apiculata)[27]
’Lagraveana’ (paniculata)[28]
'Lutea'[29]
'Minor'[30]
’Moe’ (fortunei)[31]
’Monarch’[32]
’Mount Nachi’ (fortunei)[33]
’Peach Melba’[34]
’Reginald Farrer’ (Silver Farreri Group)[35]
’Rokujo’ (fortunei)[36]
'Rosea'[37]
’Shiranami’ (fortunei)[38]
’Slack’s Ruby Southside’ (Southside Seedling Group)[39]
’Snowflake’ (Silver Farreri Group)[40]
’Southside Star’ (Southside Seedling Group)[41]
S. stolonifera (strawberry saxifrage)[42]
’Sue Drew’ (fortunei)[43]
Sugar Plum Fairy=‘Toujya’ (fortunei)[44]
'Theoden’[45]
'Tumbling Waters' [46]
S. × urbium (London pride)[47]
’Venetia’ (paniculata)[48]
’Whitehill’[49]

Uses

The leaves of some saxifrage species, such as creeping saxifrage (S. stolonifera) and S. pensylvanica,[50] are edible. The former is a food in Korea[51] and Japan. The flowers of purple saxifrage (S. oppositifolia) are eaten in Nunavut, Canada and the leaves and stems brewed as a tea.[52]

Species are also used in traditional medicine, such as creeping saxifrage in East Asia[53] and round-leaved saxifrage (S. rotundifolia) in Europe.[54]

Two species—purple saxifrage and creeping saxifrage—are popular floral emblems. They are official flowers for:

Nunavut, Canada - purple saxifrage[55]
County Londonderry, Northern Ireland - purple saxifrage[56]
Tsukuba, Japan - creeping saxifrage, "hoshizaki" form (S. stolonifera Curtis f. aptera)[57]

Pyrenean saxifrage (S. umbrosa), ancestor to horticultural hybrid saxifrages

References

"Saxifraga L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. February 9, 2005. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
"Saxifraga". National Plant Collections. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
Roger Spencer, ed. Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia. UNSW Press, 2002. p. 81. ISBN 9780868401676
D. A. Webb & R. J. Gornall (1989). Saxifrages of Europe. Christopher Helm. p. 19. ISBN 0-7470-3407-9.
Gornall 2011.
Brouillet & Elvander 2008.
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Jintang et al 2004.
Deng et al 2015.
Gornall 1987.
Soltis et al 1996.
Flora of China
Tkach et al 2015.
Umberto Quattrocchi. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms. Synonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press, 1999. p.2395-2396. ISBN 9780849326738
Knaben, G. (1934). "Saxifraga osloensis n. sp., a tetraploid species of the Tridactylites section". Nytt Magasin for Botanikk: 117–138.
Readers Digest Nature Lover's Library Wild Flowers of Britain, page 192, published 1988
Ivo Novák (1980). A Field Guide in Colour to Butterflies and Moths. Octopus Books. ISBN 0-7064-1293-1.
Charles Darwin (1875). "Drosophyllum – Roridula – Byblis – glandular hairs of other plants – concluding remarks on the Droseraceae". Insectivorous Plants (1st ed.). London: J. Murray. pp. 332–367.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 95. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Angelina Johnson'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Blackberry and Apple Pie'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga callosa". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Conwy Snow'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Coolock Kate'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Cumulus'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga fortunei". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Gregor Mendel' (× fortunei)". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Lagraveana'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga 'Lutea'". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga 'Minor'". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Moe'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Monarch'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Mount Nachi'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Peach Melba'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga (Silver Farreri Group) 'Reginald Farrer'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Rokujo' (fortunei)". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga 'Rosea'". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Shiranami'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga (Southside Seedling Group) 'Slack's Ruby Southside'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga (Silver Farreri Group) 'Snowflake'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - (Southside seedling Group) 'Southside Star'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga stolonifera". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Sue Drew'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga Sugar Plum Fairy='Toujya'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga 'Theoden'". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga 'Tumbling Waters'". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"RHS Plant Selector - Saxifraga × urbium". Retrieved 8 March 2021.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Venetia' (paniculata)". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Saxifraga 'Whitehill'". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 780. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
Chon, Sang-Uk; Heo, Buk-Gu; Park, Yong-Seo; Cho, Ja-Yong; Gorinstein, Shela (2008). "Characteristics of the leaf parts of some traditional Korean salad plants used for food". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 88 (11): 1963–1968. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3304. ISSN 1097-0010.
Official Flower of Nunavut, Nunavut, Canada
Ji-xian Guo, Ki Sung Chung, Paul Pui-hay But, Takeatsu Kimura (1996). International Collation Of Traditional And Folk Medicine, Vol 2: Northeast Asia Part 2. World Scientific Publishing Company. p. 65.
Pieroni, Andrea; Quave, Cassandra L., eds. (2014). Ethnobotany and Biocultural Diversities in the Balkans. New York: Springer.
"The Official Flower of Nunavut: Purple Saxifrage". Legislative Assembly of Nunavut. 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
County flowers in Britain Archived 14 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine www.plantlife.org.uk

"City flower, bird and tree" (in Japanese). City of Tsukuba. Retrieved 17 June 2021.

Bibliography

Books

Gornall, RJ (2011) [1984]. "Saxifraga". In Cullen, James; Knees, Sabina G.; Cubey, H. Suzanne (eds.). The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass. Vol. III Angoiospermae - Dicotyledons (Resedaceae - Cyrillaceae) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 102–131. ISBN 978-0-521-76155-0.
Soltis, D E (2007). "Saxifragaceae". In Kubitzki, Klaus (ed.). Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IX. Springer. pp. 418–435. ISBN 978-3-540-32219-1.

Articles

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Saxifrage" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 264.
Deng, Jia-bin; Drew, Bryan T.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E. (February 2015). "Phylogeny, divergence times, and historical biogeography of the angiosperm family Saxifragaceae". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 83: 86–98. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.11.011. PMID 25479063.
Gornall, Richard J. (December 1987). "An outline of a revised classification of Saxifraga L.". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 95 (4): 273–292. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1987.tb01860.x.
Gornall, Richard J.; Ohba, Hideaki; Jintang, Pan (2000). "New Taxa, Names, and Combinations in the Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) for the Flora of China". Novon. 10 (4): 375–377. doi:10.2307/3392990. JSTOR 3392990.
Soltis, Douglas E.; Kuzoff, Robert K.; Conti, Elena; Gornall, Richard; Ferguson, Keith (March 1996). "matK and rbcL Gene Sequence Data Indicate that Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) is Polyphyletic". American Journal of Botany. 83 (3): 371. doi:10.2307/2446171. JSTOR 2446171.
Tkach, Natalia; Röser, Martin; Miehe, Georg; Muellner-Riehl, Alexandra N.; Ebersbach, Jana; Favre, Adrien; Hoffmann, Matthias H. (31 December 2015). "Molecular phylogenetics, morphology and a revised classification of the complex genus Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae)". Taxon. 64 (6): 1159–1187. doi:10.12705/646.4.

Websites

POWO (2019). "Saxifraga Tourn. ex L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
WFO (2020). "Saxifraga L." World Flora Online. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
"The Saxifrage Society". 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.

Floras

Jintang, Pan; Gornall, Richard; Ohba, Hideaki (2004). "Saxifraga Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 398. 1753 (虎耳草属hu er cao shu)". p. 280. Retrieved 9 January 2020., in Flora of China online vol. 8 see also PDF
Brouillet, Luc; Elvander, Patrick E. (2008). "Saxifraga Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 398. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 189. 1754". Flora of North America vol. 8. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 43–146. Retrieved 9 January 2020.

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