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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Helianthinae
Genus: Sclerocarpus
Species: S. africanus – S. baranquillae – S. multifidus – S. papposus – S. phyllocephalus
Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2018. Sclerocarpus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 21. Reference page.

Name

Sclerocarpus Jacq., 1781

Type species: Sclerocarpus africanus Jacq.

References

Jacq., Icones Plantarum Rariorum 1: 17, pl. 176. 1781.

Links

International Plant Names Index. 2018. Sclerocarpus. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 21 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Sclerocarpus in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 21.
Tropicos.org 2018. Sclerocarpus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 21.
Hassler, M. 2018. Sclerocarpus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 21. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: bonebract

Sclerocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family.[2][3][4][5] Bonebract is a common name for plants in this genus.[6]

It includes annuals and procumbent perennials which occur primarily in Mexico and Central America, with one species extending as far north as the state of Texas in the United States and another species widely distributed across the West Indies, South America, Africa, and Asia.[7] The genus is distinguished morphologically by the pales, which are modified to completely and tightly enclose the mature cypsela (achene) and often have a tuberculate surface. Some species of Aldama have a somewhat similar modification of the pales but in those the pale surface is irregularly wrinkled and pitted rather than tuberculate. Sclerocarpus is a member of the sunflower subtribe, Helianthinae, and is placed by molecular data as a relatively basal member of the group.[8]

The plant Sclerocarpus africanus (Jacq), locally known in Igbo dialect (Nigeria) as “nli-atulu” and Manding language (Senegal) as Bambara-goni, is used for treating gonorrhea and other venereal diseases in Nigerian ethno-medicine.[9] Phytochemical screening showed presence of carbohydrates, tannins and saponins. Flavonoids and anthraquinone glycosides were found only in the ethanol and methanol extracts. Anti-microbial screening of methanol and ethanol extracts showed activity against the following human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella dysenteriae, Candida albicans and Candida thrusei, with MIC value of 2.5 mg/ml; while Neisseria gonorrhoeae was inhibited at MIC 1.25 mg/ml.which had an observered MBC of 5 mg/ ml for ethanol extract. Similar MBC/MFC values were obtained for methanol extract except Shigella dysenteriae which had MBC of 5 mg/ml. Petroleum ether extract was active against S. aureus, S. typhi, S. dysenteriae and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC value of 5 mg/ml and MBC/MFC value 10 mg/ml; no activity was observed for S. pyogenes, C. albicans and C. thrusei; N. gonorrhoeae was most inhibited. Results obtained justify the ethno-medicinal use of this plant in treatment of gonorrhea and other venereal diseases caused by the test micro organisms.[10]

Species[1][11]

Sclerocarpus africanus Jacq. - Africa, Asia, West Indies
Sclerocarpus baranguillae (Spreng.) S.F.Blake - Colombia
Sclerocarpus divaricatus (Benth.) Benth. & Hook. - from Colombia to Chihuahua
Sclerocarpus multifidus Greenm. - Guerrero, México State
Sclerocarpus papposus (Greenm.) Feddema - Michoacán, Oaxaca, Morelos
Sclerocarpus phyllocepalus S. F. Blake - Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Chiapas
Sclerocarpus schiedeanus (DC.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hook.f. - México State
Sclerocarpus sessifolius Greenm. - Sinaloa, Nayarit
Sclerocarpus spatulatus Rose - Chihuahua, Sonora
Sclerocarpus uniserialis (Hook.) Benth. & Hook. - from Texas to Guatemala

formerly included[1]

see Aldama (plant) Madia Micractis

Sclerocarpus dentatus - Aldama dentata
Sclerocarpus discoideus - Micractis discoidea
Sclerocarpus elongatus - Aldama dentata
Sclerocarpus exiguus - Madia exigua
Sclerocarpus gracilis - Madia gracilis
Sclerocarpus kerberi - Aldama dentata

References

Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph von . 1781. Icones Plantarum Rariorum 1: 17. in Latin
Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph von . 1781. Icones Plantarum Rariorum 1: plate 176. color illustration depicting Sclerocarpus africanus
Flora of North America, Vol. 21 Page 137, Mexican bone-bract, Sclerocarpus Jacquin
Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 872 硬果菊属 ying guo ju shu Sclerocarpus Jacquin
"Sclerocarpus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
Feddema, C. 1966. Systematic Studies in the Genus Sclerocarpus and the Genus Aldama (Compositae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan.
Schilling, E, E. and J. L. Panero 2002. A revised classification of subtribe Helianthinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). I. Basal lineages. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 65-76.
Ayo,R. G.;Ndiombueze, J. A. and Tor-Anyiin, T. A. 2014. Phytochemical and Anti-microbial Screening of the Leaves and Twigs of Sclerocarpus africanus (Jacq). European Journal of Medicinal Plants 4(4): 473-482.
Ayo,R. G.;Ndiombueze, J. A. and Tor-Anyiin, T. A. 2014. Phytochemical and Anti-microbial Screening of the Leaves and Twigs of Sclerocarpus africanus (Jacq). European Journal of Medicinal Plants 4(4): 473-482.
The Plant List search for Sclerocarpus

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