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Scrophularia

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Scrophulariaceae
Tribus: Scrophularieae
Genus: Scrophularia
Species: S. alata - S. auriculata - S. buergeriana - S. californica - S. canina - S. chrysantha - S. decomposita - S. elatior - S. hierochuntina - S. kakudensis - S. koraiensis - S. lanceolata - S. lucida - S. marilandica - S. ningpoensis - S. nodosa - S. orientalis - S. pauciflora - S. rubricaulis - S. sambucifolia - S. scopolii - S. striata - S. umbrosa - S. variegata - S. xanthoglossa - S. xylorrhiza

Name

Scrophularia L.

Vernacular name
Internationalization
Türkçe: Sıraca otu

The genus Scrophularia of the family Scrophulariaceae comprises about 200 species of herbaceous flowering plants commonly known as figworts. Species of Scrophularia all share square stems, opposite leaves and open two-lipped flowers forming clusters at the end of their stems. The genus is found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but concentrated in Asia with only a few species in Europe and North America.

Scrophularia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phymatopus hectoides.

Some species in this genus are known to contain potentially useful substances, such as iridoids, and several Scrophularia species have been used in various traditional medicines around the world, such as the Ningpo figwort or Chinese figwort (S. ningpoensis). The name Scrophularia comes from scrofula, a form of tuberculosis, because several species have been used to treat this disease.

Selected species


* Scrophularia aequilabris
* Scrophularia alaschanica
* Scrophularia amana
* Scrophularia amplexicaulis
* Scrophularia aquatica
* Scrophularia atrata - Black Figwort
* Scrophularia atropatana
* Scrophularia auriculata - Water Figwort, pollinated by wasp[1]
* Scrophularia balbisii
* Scrophularia bitlisica
* Scrophularia buergeriana
* Scrophularia californica - California Figwort
* Scrophularia candelabrum
* Scrophularia canina - Dog Figwort
* Scrophularia capillaris
* Scrophularia carduchorum
* Scrophularia catariifolia
* Scrophularia chasmophila
* Scrophularia chlorantha
* Scrophularia chrysantha
* Scrophularia cinerascens
* Scrophularia crenophila
* Scrophularia cryptophila
* Scrophularia delavayi
* Scrophularia dentata
* Scrophularia depauperata
* Scrophularia desertorum
* Scrophularia diplodonta
* Scrophularia divaricata
* Scrophularia elatior
* Scrophularia erzincanica
* Scrophularia fargesii
* Scrophularia floribunda
* Scrophularia formosana
* Scrophularia frigida
* Scrophularia frutescens
* Scrophularia glabrata
* Scrophularia grandiflora
* Scrophularia gypsicola
* Scrophularia henryi
* Scrophularia herminii
* Scrophularia heucheriiflora
* Scrophularia hopii
* Scrophularia hypericifolia
* Scrophularia hypsophila
* Scrophularia hyssopifolia
* Scrophularia ilwensis
* Scrophularia incisa
* Scrophularia juratensis
* Scrophularia kansuensis
* Scrophularia kakudensis
* Scrophularia kiriloviana
* Scrophularia kotschyana
* Scrophularia kurdica
* Scrophularia laevigata
* Scrophularia laevis - Smooth Figwort
* Scrophularia lanceolata - Lanceleaf Figwort
* Scrophularia lepidota
* Scrophularia lhasaensis
* Scrophularia libanotica
* Scrophularia lijiangensis
* Scrophularia lucida
* Scrophularia luridiflora
* Scrophularia macrantha - Mimbres Figwort
* Scrophularia macrobotrys
* Scrophularia macrocarpa
* Scrophularia mapienensis
* Scrophularia marilandica - Late Figwort
* Scrophularia meridionalis
* Scrophularia mersinensis
* Scrophularia mesopotamica
* Scrophularia modesta
* Scrophularia moellendorffii
* Scrophularia myriophylla
* Scrophularia nachitschevanica
* Scrophularia nankinensis
* Scrophularia neesii
* Scrophularia ningpoensis - Ningpo Figwort
* Scrophularia nodosa - Common Figwort
* Scrophularia olympica
* Scrophularia orientalis
* Scrophularia paphlagonica
* Scrophularia parviflora - Pineland Figwort
* Scrophularia pauciflora
* Scrophularia pegaea
* Scrophularia peregrina - Nettle-leaved Figwort
* Scrophularia peyronii
* Scrophularia pinardii
* Scrophularia pruinosa
* Scrophularia przewalskii
* Scrophularia pulverulenta
* Scrophularia pumilio
* Scrophularia rimarum
* Scrophularia rubricaulis
* Scrophularia sambucifolia
* Scrophularia scariosa
* Scrophularia schmitzii
* Scrophularia scopolii
* Scrophularia scorodonia - Balm-leaved Figwort
* Scrophularia serratifolia
* Scrophularia sosnowskyi
* Scrophularia souliei
* Scrophularia spicata
* Scrophularia striata
* Scrophularia stylosa
* Scrophularia subaequiloba
* Scrophularia sublyrata
* Scrophularia taihangshanensis
* Scrophularia thesioides
* Scrophularia trichopoda
* Scrophularia umbrosa - Green Figwort
* Scrophularia urticifolia
* Scrophularia variegata
* Scrophularia vernalis - Yellow Figwort
* Scrophularia versicolor
* Scrophularia villosa
* Scrophularia xanthoglossa
* Scrophularia xylorrhiza
* Scrophularia yoshimurae
* Scrophularia yunnanensis
* Scrophularia zuvandica

Other plants called "figwort"

Some other plants - mainly Lamiales formerly or still in the Scrophulariaceae - are also called "figwort". These include:

* Euphrasia officinalis (Red Eyebright)
* Veronica officinalis (Common Speedwell)
* Veronica anagallis-aquatica (Water Speedwell)
* Gratiola officinalis (Common Hedgehyssop)
* Bacopa monnieri (Coastal Waterhyssop)
* Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed)
* Ilysanthes riparia (False Pimpernel)

References

1. ^ RSPB Birds Magazine Summer 2004, page 65

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