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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Caesalpinioideae
Tribus: Cassieae
Subtribus: Cassiinae
Genus: Senna
Sectiones: S. sect. Astroites – S. sect. Chamaefistula – S. sect. Paradictyon – S. sect. Peiranisia – S. sect. Psilorhegma – S. sect. Senna

Species:
Top · a · b · c · d · e · f · g · h · i · j · k · l · m · n · o · p · q · r · s · t · u · v · w · x · y · z
a

S. acanthoclada – S. acclinis – S. aciphylla – S. aculeata – S. acunae – S. acuparata – S. acuruensis – S. acutisepala – S. affinis – S. alata – S. alexandrina – S. andrieuxii – S. angulata – S. angustisiliqua – S. ankaranensis – S. anthoxantha – S. aphylla – S. apiculata – S. appendiculata – S. apsidoneura – S. araucarietorum – S. argentea – S. arida – S. aristeguietae – S. armata – S. arnottiana – S. artemisioides – S. atomaria – S. aurantia – S. auriculata – S. aversiflora – S. aymara
b

S. baccarinii – S. bacillaris – S. barclayana – S. barnebyana – S. barronfieldii – S. bauhinioides – S. benitoensis – S. bicapsularis – S. biglandularis – S. birostris – S. bosseri – S. bracteosa – S. brongniartii – S. burkartiana
c

S. cajamarcae – S. cana – S. candolleana – S. cardiosperma – S. catingae – S. caudata – S. cearensis – S. centranthera – S. cernua – S. chapmanii – S. charlesiana – S. chloroclada – S. chrysocarpa – S. cladophylla – S. clavigera – S. cobanensis – S. coimbrae – S. collicola – S. confinis – S. corifolia – S. cornigera – S. coronilloides – S. corymbosa – S. costata – S. covesii – S. crassiramea – S. crotalarioides – S. cruckshanksii – S. cuatrecasasii – S. cumingii – S. curvistyla – S. cushina – S. cuthbertsonii
d

S. dardanoi – S. dariensis – S. davidsonii – S. demissa – S. didymobotrya – S. divaricata – S. domingensis – S. durangensis
e

S. ellisiae
f

S. ferraria – S. flexuosa – S. × floribunda – S. foetidissima – S. formosa – S. fruticosa
g

S. galeottiana – S. gardneri – S. garrettiana – S. gaudichaudii – S. georgica – S. glanduligera – S. glaucifolia – S. glutinosa – S. goniodes – S. gossweileri – S. guatemalensis – S. gundlachii
h

S. hamersleyensis – S. harleyi – S. haughtii – S. hayesiana – S. hebecarpa – S. heptanthera – S. herzogii – S. hilariana – S. hirsuta – S. holosericea – S. holwayana – S. hookeriana – S. huancabambae – S. huidobriana – S. huilana – S. humifusa
i

S. incarnata – S. insularis – S. intermedia – S. italica – S. itatiaiae
k

S. koelziana – S. kurtzii
l

S. lactea – S. lasseigniana – S. latifolia – S. leandrii – S. lechriosperma – S. leiophylla – S. leptoclada – S. ligustrina – S. lindheimeriana – S. longiglandulosa – S. longiracemosa – S. loretensis – S. lourteigiana
m

S. macranthera – S. macrophylla – S. magnifolia – S. malaspinae – S. mandonii – S. manicula – S. marilandica – S. martiana – S. mensicola – S. meridionalis – S. mexicana – S. mollissima – S. monilifera – S. monozyx – S. montana – S. morongii – S. mucronifera – S. multifoliolata – S. multiglandulosa – S. multijuga – S. mutisiana
n

S. nana – S. neglecta – S. nicaraguensis – S. nitida – S. notabilis – S. nudicaulis
o

S. obliqua – S. oblongifolia – S. obtusifolia – S. occidentalis – S. oligoclada – S. orcuttii – S. organensis – S. oxyphylla
p

S. pachyrrhiza – S. pallida – S. papillosa – S. paposana – S. paradictyon – S. paraensis – S. pendula – S. pentagonia – S. peralteana – S. perrieri – S. petersiana – S. phlebadenia – S. phyllodinea – S. pilifera – S. pilocarina – S. pilosior – S. pinheiroi – S. pistaciifolia – S. planitiicola – S. pleurocarpa – S. pneumatica – S. podocarpa – S. polyantha – S. polyphylla – S. praeterita – S. procumbens – S. pumilio – S. punoensis – S. purpusii
q

S. quinquangulata
r

S. racemosa – S. reniformis – S. reticulata – S. rigidicaulis – S. ripleyana – S. rizzinii – S. robiniifolia – S. roemeriana – S. rostrata – S. rugosa – S. ruiziana – S. rupununiensis – S. ruspolii
s

S. saeri – S. sandwithiana – S. santanderensis – S. scabriuscula – S. scandens – S. septemtrionalis – S. sericea – S. siamea – S. silvestris – S. singueana – S. skinneri – S. smithiana – S. sophera – S. sousana – S. spectabilis – S. spinescens – S. spiniflora – S. spinigera – S. splendida – S. stenophylla – S. stipulacea – S. stowardii – S. stricta – S. suarezensis – S. subtrijuga – S. subulata – S. sulfurea – S. surattensis – S. symonii
t

S. talpana – S. tapajozensis – S. tenuifolia – S. timoriensis – S. tocotana – S. tonduzii – S. tora – S. trachypus – S. trianae – S. trolliiflora – S. tropica – S. truncata – S. tuhovalyana
u

S. uncata – S. undulata – S. uniflora – S. unijuga – S. urmenetae
v

S. vargasii – S. velutina – S. venusta – S. versicolor – S. viarum – S. viciifolia – S. viguierella – S. villosa – S. viminea
w

S. weddelliana – S. williamsii – S. wislizeni – S. wurdackii
Source(s) of checklist:
Name

Senna Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4 (1754).

Type species: Senna alexandrina Mill.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Peiranisia Raf., Sylva Tellur. 127 (1838).
Type species: Peiranisia aversifolia (Hook.) Raf.
Desmodiocassia Britton & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 244 (1930).
Type species: Desmodiocassia villosa (Mill.) Britton & Rose
Echinocassia Britton & Rose, N. Amer. FL 23(4): 251 (1930).
Type species: Echinocassia aculeata (Benth.) Britton & Rose
Sciacassia Britton ex Britton & Rose, N. Amer. FL 23(4): 252 (1930).
Type species: Sciacassia siamea (Lam.) Britton & Rose
Xerocassia armata Britton & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23(4): 246 (1930).
Type species: Xerocassia armata (S.Watson) Britton & Rose

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Tropical & Subtropical Old World & America
Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Republic, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe
Introduced into:
Aldabra, Arkansas, Ascension, Belgium, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Gabon, Georgia, Hainan, Hawaii, Inner Mongolia, Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laccadive Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Primorye, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Spain, St.Helena, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wallis-Futuna Is.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References
Primary references

Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary. Abridged. Ed. 4, Vol. 1–3 (unpaged). John & James Rivington, London. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.79061 Reference page. : ed. 4. 1280

Additional references

Robbiati, F.O. et al. 2014: Lectotypification, synonymy, and a new name in Senna series Aphyllae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae). Phytotaxa 162(2): 84–90. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.162.2.2 Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Senna in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Aug 31. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Senna. Published online. Accessed: Aug 31 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Senna. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Aug 31.
Catalogue of Life: 2020 Annual Checklist

Vernacular names
suomi: Sennat
русский: Сенна

Senna, the sennas, is a large genus of flowering plants in the legume family (Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae,[2] tribe Cassieae). This diverse genus is native throughout the tropics, with a small number of species in temperate regions. The number of species is estimated to be from about 260[3] to 350.[4] The type species for the genus is Senna alexandrina. About 50 species of Senna are known in cultivation.[5]

Description

Senna includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. The leaves are pinnate with opposite paired leaflets. The inflorescences are racemes at the ends of branches or emerging from the leaf axils. The flower has five sepals and five usually yellow petals. There are ten straight stamens. The stamens may be different sizes, and some are staminodes. The fruit is a legume pod containing several seeds.[6]

Systematics

Chamaecrista, Cassia, and Senna form a monophyletic group which some authors have called Cassia sensu lato.[7] In 1982, the group was named Cassiinae and classified as a subtribe of the tribe Cassieae.[8] The tribe Cassieae contains 21 genera and is now known to be polyphyletic,[7] but the classification is still accepted because a revision of Fabaceae has yet to be published.[7]

The genus Senna has had a complex taxonomic history.[9] What is now known as Senna was included by Linnaeus in his concept of Cassia in Species Plantarum in 1753.[10] Philip Miller segregated Senna from Cassia in 1754 in the fourth edition of The Gardeners Dictionary.[11] Until 1982, many authors, following Linnaeus, did not recognize Senna and Chamaecrista, but included them in a broadly circumscribed Cassia sensu lato. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA have shown that Chamaecrista, Cassia, and Senna are all monophyletic, but the relationships between these three genera have not been resolved.[3] They are therefore shown in phylogenetic trees as a tritomy.

Etymology

The genus name derives from the Arabic sanā, describing plants whose leaves and pods have cathartic and laxative properties.[12]
Species

As of December 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species:[13][14][15]
Senna alexandrina
Senna artemisioides
Senna bicapsularis
Senna didymobotrya
Senna hirsuta
Senna macranthera
Senna multiglandulosa
Senna occidentalis
Senna pendula
Senna spectabilis
Senna surattensis
Senna odorata

Senna acanthoclada (Griseb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna acclinis (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna aciphylla (Benth. ex A.Gray) Randell
Senna aculeata (Pohl ex Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna acunae (Borhidi) A.Barreto & Yakovlev
Senna acuparata H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna acutisepala (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna affinis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. – candlebush, Christmas candle
Senna alexandrina Mill. – Alexandrian senna
Senna andrieuxii (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna angulata (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna angustisiliqua (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna ankaranensis Du Puy & R.Rabev.
Senna anthoxantha (Capuron) Du Puy
Senna aphylla (Cav.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna apiculata (M.Martens & Galeotti) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna appendiculata (Vogel) Wiersema
Senna apsidoneura (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna araucarietorum H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna argentea (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna arida (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna aristeguietae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna armata (S.Watson) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna arnottiana (Hook.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna artemisioides (Gaudich. ex DC.) Randell – grey cassia, leafless cassia, woody cassia
Senna atomaria (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna aurantia (Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. – avaram, Matara-tea, tanner's cassia
Senna aversiflora (Herb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna aymara H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna baccarinii (Chiov.) Lock
Senna bacillaris (L.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – West Indian showertree
Senna barclayana (Sweet) Randell
Senna barnebyana Lass. – pepper-leaf senna, smooth senna, yellow peabush
Senna barronfieldii (Colla) Hewson
Senna bauhinioides (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna benitoensis (Britton & P.Wilson) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. – rambling senna, Christmas bush, money bush, yellow candlewood
Senna biglandularis A.O.Araujo & V.C.Souza
Senna birostris (Dombey ex Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna bosseri Du Puy & R.Rabev.
Senna bracteosa D.B.O.S.Cardoso & L.P.Queiroz
Senna brongniartii (Gaudich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna burkartiana (Villa) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cajamarcae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cana (Nees & Mart.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna candolleana (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cardiosperma (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna catingae (Harms) L.P.Queiroz
Senna caudata (Standl.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cearensis Afr.Fern.
Senna centranthera H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cernua (Balb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna chapmanii (Isely) A.Barreto & Yakovlev
Senna charlesiana (Symon) Randell
Senna chloroclada (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna chrysocarpa (Desv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cladophylla (W.Fitzg.) Randell
Senna clavigera (Domin) Randell
Senna cobanensis (Britton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna coimbrae M.Nee & Barneby
Senna collicola H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna confinis (Greene) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna corifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cornigera H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna coronilloides (Benth.) Randell
Senna corymbosa (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Argentine senna, Argentine wild sensitive plant[16]
Senna costata (J.F.Bailey & C.T.White) Randell
Senna covesii (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Coues' cassia, Coves' cassia, desert senna[16]
Senna crassiramea (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna crotalarioides (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cruckshanksii (Hook.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cuatrecasasii H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cumingii (Hook. & Arn.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna curvistyla (J.M.Black) Randell
Senna cushina (J.F.Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna cuthbertsonii (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna dardanoi Afr.Fern. & P.Bezerra
Senna dariensis (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna davidsonii (V.Singh) V.Singh
Senna demissa (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – candelabra-tree, peanut butter cassia, African senna
Senna divaricata (Nees & Blume) Lock
Senna domingensis (Spreng.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna durangensis (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna ellisiae (Brenan) Lock
Senna ferraria (Symon) Randell
Senna flexuosa (Randell) Randell
Senna foetidissima (Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna formosa H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna fruticosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna galeottiana (M.Martens) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna gardneri (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna garrettiana (Craib) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna gaudichaudii (Hook. & Arn.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – climbing cassia, heuhiuhi (Pacific Islands, Queensland)[17]
Senna georgica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna glanduligera (H.St.John) A.C.Sm.
Senna glaucifolia (Randell) Randell
Senna glutinosa (DC.) Randell
Senna goniodes (A.Cunn. ex Benth.) Randell
Senna gossweileri (Baker f.) Lock
Senna guatemalensis (Donn.Sm.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna gundlachii (Urb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna hamersleyensis (Symon) Randell
Senna harleyi H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna haughtii (J.F.Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna hayesiana (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna hebecarpa (Fernald) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – American senna, wild senna
Senna heptanthera Randell
Senna herzogii (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna hilariana (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – woolly senna
Senna holosericea (Fresen.) Greuter
Senna holwayana (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna hookeriana Batke
Senna huancabambae (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna huidobriana (Phil.) Zoellner & San Martin
Senna huilana (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna humifusa (Brenan) Lock
Senna incarnata (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna insularis (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna intermedia (B.D.Sharma, Vivek. & Rathakr.) V.Singh
Senna italica Mill. – Port Royal senna, dog senna, Italian senna, Spanish senna
Senna itatiaiae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna koelziana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna kurtzii (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna lactea (Vatke) Du Puy
Senna lasseigniana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna latifolia (G.Mey.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna leandrii (Ghesq.) Du Puy
Senna lechriosperma H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna leiophylla (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna leptoclada (Benth.) Randell
Senna ligustrina (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – privet senna
Senna lindheimeriana (Scheele) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – velvet-leaf senna, showy senna
Senna longiglandulosa (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna longiracemosa (Vatke) Lock
Senna loretensis (Killip) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna lourteigiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna macranthera (DC. ex Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna macrophylla (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna magnifolia (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna malaspinae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna mandonii (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna manicula (Symon) Randell
Senna marilandica (L.) Link
Senna martiana (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna mensicola (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna meridionalis (R.Vig.) Du Puy – Madagascar senna
Senna mexicana (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Mexican senna
Senna mollissima (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna monilifera H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna monozyx (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna montana (B.Heyne ex Roth) V.Singh
Senna morongii (Britton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna mucronifera (Mart. ex Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna multifoliolata (Paul G.Wilson) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – glandular senna, downy senna
Senna multijuga (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – false sicklepod
Senna mutisiana (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna nana (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna neglecta (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna nicaraguensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna nitida (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna notabilis (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna nudicaulis (Burkart) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna obliqua (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna oblongifolia (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – coffee-weed, java-bean, American sicklepod
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link – antbush, coffee-senna, negro-coffee, septicweed, stinkingweed[18]
Senna oligoclada (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna orcuttii (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Orcutt's senna
Senna organensis (Glaz. ex Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna oxyphylla (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna pachyrrhiza (L.Bravo) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna pallida (Vahl) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna paposana (Phil.) Zoellner & San Martin
Senna paradictyon (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna paraensis (Ducke) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Easter cassia
Senna pentagonia (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna peralteana (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna perrieri (R.Vig.) Du Puy
Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock
Senna phlebadenia H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna phyllodinea (R.Br.) Symon
Senna pilifera (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna pilocarina (Symon) Randell
Senna pilosior (B.L.Rob.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby — Trans-Pecos senna
Senna pinheiroi H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna pistaciifolia (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna planitiicola (Domin) Randell
Senna pleurocarpa (F.Muell.) Randell – stripe-pod cassia[19]
Senna pneumatica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna podocarpa (Guill. & Perr.) Lock
Senna polyantha (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna polyphylla (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna praeterita H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna procumbens Randell
Senna pumilio (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – dwarf senna
Senna punoensis Lass.
Senna purpusii (Brandegee) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna quinquangulata (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – limestone senna
Senna reniformis (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna reticulata (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna rigidicaulis (Burkart ex L.Bravo) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna ripleyana (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Ripley's senna
Senna rizzinii H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna robiniifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna roemeriana (Scheele) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – twoleaf senna, Roemer senna
Senna rostrata (Mart.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – New Mexico wild sensitive plant
Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna ruiziana (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna rupununiensis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna ruspolii (Chiov.) Lock
Senna saeri (Pittier) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna sandwithiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna santanderensis (Britton & Killip) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna scabriuscula (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna scandens (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – arsenic-bush, Dooleyweed, laburnum, smooth senna
Senna sericea (Symon) Albr. & Symon
Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – kassodtree, Siamese cassia, Thai cassia, Thailand shower
Senna silvestris (Vell.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna singueana (Delile) Lock
Senna skinneri (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna smithiana (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna sophera (L.) Roxb.
Senna sophora Roxb.
Senna sousana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna spinescens (Hoffmanns. ex Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna spiniflora (Burkart) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna spinigera (Rizzini) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna splendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna stenophylla (Britton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna stipulacea (Aiton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna stowardii (S.Moore) Randell
Senna stricta (Randell) Randell
Senna suarezensis (Capuron) Du Puy
Senna subtrijuga H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna subulata (Griseb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna sulfurea (DC. ex Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna surattensis (Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna symonii (Randell) Randell
Senna talpana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna tapajozensis (Ducke) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna tenuifolia (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna tocotana (Rose ex Britton & Killip) Silverst.
Senna tonduzii (Standl.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. – sickle senna, foetid cassia
Senna trachypus (Mart. ex Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna trianae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna trolliiflora H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna tropica (Vell.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna truncata (Brenan) Lock
Senna tuhovalyana (Aké Assi) Lock
Senna uncata H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna undulata (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna unijuga (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna urmenetae (Phil.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna vargasii (Schery) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna velutina (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna venusta (F.Muell.) Randell
Senna versicolor (Meyen ex Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna viarum (Little) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna viciifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna viguierella (Ghesq.) Du Puy
Senna villosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna viminea (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna weddelliana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna williamsii (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna wislizeni (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Senna wurdackii H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Wislizenus' senna, shrubby senna

Ecology

The caterpillars of many species feed on Senna plants. The black witch (Ascalapha odorata), two-barred flasher (Astraptes fulgerator), common emigrant (Catopsilia pomona), and mottled emigrant (C. pyranthe) have all been recorded on candle bush (S. alata), for example.

Some species have extrafloral nectaries on the leaves or flower stalks that are visited by ants.[3]
Pollination

Senna species are pollinated by a variety of bees, especially large female bees in genera such as Xylocopa.[3] They rely on "buzz pollination" and some within that on "ricochet pollination", which is a secondary pollen presentation where the pollen is not deposited on the pollinator's body by direct contact with the anthers.[20] The flowers have two sets of stamen: feeding stamens, which are longer, and pollinating stamens, which are smaller in size.[21] Due to buzz pollination, the pollens from the pollinating stamens get thrown from the anthers and ricochets against the petals multiple times before it settles on the dorsal side of the pollinating bee. The roughness on the petal walls causes the pollen to slow down its speed. The ricocheting effect alone cannot ensure effective pollen dissemination. It is aided by static charges wherein the flying bees become positively charged owing to the friction in the air and the pollen becomes negatively charged because of which they naturally get attracted to the bees body. The pollinator bee ends up carrying the pollen and also gets to feed on the pollen which is on the feeding stamens.[20]
Uses

Some Senna species are used as ornamental plants in landscaping. The species is adapted to many climate types.

Cassia gum, an extract of the seeds of Chinese senna (S. obtusifolia), is used as a thickening agent. The leaves and flowers of Siamese cassia (S. siamea) are used in some Southeast Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Shan/Burmese and Lao cuisines. They are known as khi-lek in Thai, and are used in curries.[22]
Laxative

Historically, Egyptian senna (S. alexandrina) was used as a laxative in the form of senna pods, or as herbal tea made from the leaves. Senna is considered to be a bowel stimulant on the myenteric plexus of the colon to induce peristaltic contractions and decrease water absorption from inside the colon, effects that would provide relief from constipation.[23]

Senna or its extracted sennosides, alone or in combination with sorbitol or lactulose, have been evaluated in systematic reviews and Cochrane reviews for treatment of constipation in children and the elderly. Some studies showed limited evidence for efficacy,[24][25][26] whereas others indicated the study designs were too weak to be certain of senna having utility as a laxative.[23][27][28]

Fossil record

A fossil seed pod of Senna sp. from the middle Eocene epoch has been described from the Rancho clay pit in Henry County, Tennessee (United States).[29]
References

Irwin HS, Barneby RC (1982). The American Cassiinae: A synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Casiinae in the New World, Part 1 (PDF). Bronx, N.Y.: New York Botanical Garden. OCLC 8553234. b1010840.
The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG) (2017). "A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77. doi:10.12705/661.3.
Marazzi, B.; et al. (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships within Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae) based on three chloroplast DNA regions: patterns in the evolution of floral symmetry and extrafloral nectaries". American Journal of Botany. 93 (2): 288–303. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.2.288. PMID 21646190. S2CID 24791422.
Randell, B. R. and B. A. Barlow. 1998. Senna. pp 89-138. In: A. S. George (executive editor). Flora of Australia volume 12. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia.
Huxley, A., et al. (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press, Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
Senna. Flora of China.
Lewis, G., et al. 2005. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Richmond, England. ISBN 978-1-900347-80-8
Irwin H. S., Barneby R. C. (1982). "The American Cassiinae: A synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New World". Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. 35: 1–119.
Singh, V. 2001. Monograph on the Indian Subtribe Cassiinae. Scientific Publishers (India): Jodhpur, India.
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Cassia. page 376. In: Species Plantarum volume 1. Cassia (including Senna) In:Species Plantarum volume 1 At: Biodiversity Heritage Library
Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary, Abridged 4th edition.
B.R.Randell, B.R. & Barlow, B.A. (2017) "Senna". In: Flora of Australia. Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
"Senna Mill". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
"ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Senna". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Senna". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
Senna. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
"kolomona, kalamona, heuhiuhi, uhiuhi". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
"Senna occidentalis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
"Senna pleurocarpa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
Bir Bahadur (2019). Asymmetry in Plants: Biology of Handedness. CRC Press. ISBN 9780429960710.
Bruna Karen Pinheiro-Costa, José Neiva Mesquita-Neto, Juliana Ordones Rego, Clemens Schlindwein; et al. (2018). "Trade off between quantity and size of pollen grains in the heterandrous flowers of Senna pendula (Fabaceae)". Acta Botanica Brasilica. 32 (3): 446–453. doi:10.1590/0102-33062018abb0132.
Teangpook C.; et al. (2011). "Production and nutrition of Khi Lek (Siamese cassia) curry from central Thailand" (PDF). Kasetsart. J. (Nat. Sci.). 45: 510–20.
Leung, L; Riutta, T; Kotecha, J; Rosser, W (2011). "Chronic constipation: An evidence-based review". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24 (4): 436–51. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2011.04.100272. PMID 21737769.
Mueller-Lissner, S. A.; Wald, A (2010). "Constipation in adults". BMJ Clinical Evidence. 2010: 0413. PMC 3217654. PMID 21418672.
Wald, A (2016). "Constipation: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment". JAMA. 315 (2): 185–91. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.16994. PMID 26757467.
Izzy, M; Malieckal, A; Little, E; Anand, S (2016). "Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 7 (2): 334–342. doi:10.4292/wjgpt.v7.i2.334. PMC 4848256. PMID 27158549.
CADTH Rapid Response Reports (2014). "Treatments for Constipation: A Review of Systematic Reviews". Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. CADTH Rapid Response Reports. PMID 25535635.
Gordon, M; MacDonald, J. K.; Parker, C. E.; Akobeng, A. K.; Thomas, A. G. (2016). "Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD009118. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009118.pub3. PMC 6513425. PMID 27531591.
The Fossil History of Leguminosae from the Eocene of Southeastern North America by Patrick S. Herendeen, Advances in Legume Systematics: Part 4, The Fossil Record, Ed. P. S. Herendeen & Dilcher, 1992, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, ISBN 0 947643 40 0

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